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Disasters and Development Reducing Risk-Protecting Livelihoods Global Perspectives of Disaster Risk 4 May, 2009 Trish Zweig Disaster Mitigation for Sustainable Livelihoods Programme (DiMP) University of Cape Town
Objectives • To introduce concepts of disaster reduction, disaster management and disaster risk • To introduce the ‘top and bottom trays’ of the disaster risk reduction toolkit • To introduce the Hyogo Framework for Action
A world of increasing disaster risk? Australian wildfires Feb 2009 Hurricane Katrina US$200 billion South Asian Earthquake 3 million homeless Swine flu’ 2009 Millions threatened
Introducing Disaster Risk:Why be concerned? • In 1990s, global economic costs of disasters with a natural trigger > $US 608 billion. • 3 x economic losses in 1980s • 9 x economic losses in 1960s • by 2050, expected to reach $US300 billion/annually Not only a world of increasing risk, but also one of rapidly changing risks …
A World of Rising Urban Risks 2001 – 924 million in slums or informal settlements Now By 2030 3.3 bn pop 5.0 bn pop Asia 2.64 bn Lat Am/Car 600 million Africa doubles to 742 million By 2030, 2 bn people in slums or informal settlements
Developed countries annual loss around 2-5% of GDP …compared to 13.4% of GDP in poor countries … infrastructural loss. • International stats exclude • drought & often uninsured • losses … under-represent • losses in South and recurrent • small events. Major human • impacts - deaths, displacement, • food insecurity
The most important shift ininternational emphasis is: From To Managing disaster events Managing disaster risks Primary focus on preparedness and relief Primary focus on reducing disaster risks developmentally
This means shifting away from‘waiting for a disaster’ Which is … A serious disruption of a household, community, ecosystem or society that: • results in human, material, economic or environmental losses • exceeds the ability of those affected to manage, using their own resources. To …
Risk-proofing against extreme weather events, Suurbraak, South Africa Reducing disaster risks through development action Disaster risk reduction is a framework that enables efforts to reduce vulnerabilities and disaster risks - to avoid (prevent) - to limit (mitigate and prepare for) the adverse impacts of hazards Rainwater harvesting in Tanzania
Top tray of the disaster reduction toolkit – key concepts -- • Hazard • Vulnerability • Disaster risk • Disaster risk reduction
Why are hazards important? • A potentially damaging physical event or action that may harm people, their economic assets, infrastructure and environment. • May be natural (ie a storm) or human-induced (industrial accident/ candle toppling) • More than 70% of all disasters are ‘triggered’ by weather hazards. This is the external part of disaster risk – understanding significantly shaped by physical scientists
We live with hazards • They are also resources for us. • Hazards are with us every day... Electricity, wind, heavy rain, motor vehicles, crime. • They may be ‘slow-onset’ (like drought) • Or they may be sudden onset (like cyclones) • Hazards can increase disaster risk, but they don’t ‘cause’ disasters
Disaster risk is also increased by vulnerability This means: … the conditions and processes that increase the susceptibility of a household, community or area to the impacts of a hazard • This is the internal part of disaster risk • Understanding of which is significantly developed • by social scientists and humanitarian organisations
1) Exposure • Location • Environmental • surroundings Vulnerability* as: 2) Levels of resistance • Livelihoods • Health 3) Levels of resilience • Adaptation • Preparedness * Mark Pelling environmental vulnerability, in Vulnerability of Cities (2003)
What is disaster risk? It is: • the likelihoodof some kind of harm (illness, injury, death, property and environmental damage, disrupted lives and livelihoods) • due to the interaction between hazardsand conditions of vulnerability. • Risk = H x V x elements at risk capacity
Disaster risk reduction is a framework that enables efforts to reduce vulnerabilities and disasterrisks What is disaster risk reduction? to avoid (prevent) and limit (mitigate and prepare for) the adverse impacts of hazards
Summary • Economic losses from disaster events will rise dramatically affecting populations at-risk • Global emphasis has shifted significantly to focus on reducing disaster risks, rather than managing disaster events • Key concepts are hazard, vulnerability, disaster risk and disaster risk reduction
Introducing the second tray of the tool kit • Comprises older ‘used tools’ from disaster management • Includes ‘newer tools’ from the disaster risk reduction framework
What did we call ‘disaster management?’ Disaster management organised action around: Post-disaster or ‘ ‘reactive’ Pre-disaster or ...’proactive’ Disaster event Prevention Mitigation Preparedness Recovery/ rehabilitation Relief/response Disaster management has provided useful concepts, actions and approaches (older tools)
Prevention • Measures designed to provide permanent protection … or reduce the intensity of a hazardous event so it does not become a disaster… • eg… reforesting an unstable slope to prevent landslides
Mitigation • Measures taken well in advance of a hazard alert to minimise vulnerability of communities/h’holds to a known/expected threat • Eg protecting deep wells in cholera-prone areas, crop diversification to drought tolerant varieties. • Structural vs non-structural mitigation
Structural mitigation • Measures that try to keep hazards away from people or buildings, or to strengthen buildings, infrastructure … • such as electrical power and transportation systems, or sites that are exposed to hazards (ie dams, channel diversions, building codes and construction practices).
Structural mitigation … increasing the risk - postponing the loss ? • It is speculated that many structural mitigation measures merely delay losses that are inevitable … • as the design criteria for say, flood protection dams are inadequate for future extreme weather events …ie technological protection does not afford security - esp. if the population has increased.
Preparedness • Advance measures taken to predict, respond to and manage a hazard event… measures that prepare people to react appropriately before, during and after it. • Eg dissemination of early warning info on approaching cyclone … intensified health education before rainy season
Relief/response • Measures taken to alleviate immediate hardship and meet basic needs for shelter, water, sanitation, health care as well as search, rescue and protection of those affected.
Recovery and Rehabilitation • Process undertaken by a disaster-affected community to fully restore itself to its predisaster level of functioning …AND which enables it to become even more disaster-resistant. • Eg planting/harvest of drought resistant crops … storm/cyclone -proofing essential community buildings, roads, railways, schools and clinics.
Non-structural mitigation • Attempt to distribute the population and the constructed environment to reduce their exposure to loss (ie zoning ordinances, land-use planning). • Non-structural mitigation keeps people away from hazards
Introducing the Newer Tools from Disaster Risk Reduction This means... Applying policies, strategies and practices that minimise vulnerabilities in a community or society to: - avoid (prevent) or - limit (mitigate and prepare for) the adverse impact of hazards in the context of sustainable development …
Disaster risk reduction as a critical developmental theme … • Informed by a strong theoretical orientation that is risk-focused • Is directive and applied – directs action to reduce risks that is socially responsive and value-adding • Is supported by a significant international advocacy platform International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, and …
Outcome of the World Conference on Disaster Reduction January 2005 ‘Building the resilience of nations and communities to disasters’ …ie to achieve The substantial reduction of disaster losses, in lives and in the social, economic and environmental assets of communities and countries. Hyogo Framework for Action 2005- 2015(HFA)
Expected Outcome: Substantially reduced disaster losses, in lives and in the social, economic and environmental assets of communities and countries, by …(3 strategic goals) …integrating disaster risk reduction into sustainable development policies and planning
…developing and strengthening institutions, mechanisms and capacities to build resilience to hazards … systematically incorporating risk reduction into emergency prep, response & recovery progs Zambia Areas under flood threat SADC: Source: SADC Food Security Warning System Mozambique
Five priorities for action • Ensure that drr is a national and local priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation • Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and enhance early warning • Use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels • Reduce underlying risk factors • Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response
Ensure that DRR is a national and local priority with strong institutional basis for implementation • Foster political commitment and community participation • Develop and strengthen institutional/legislative and operational mechanisms • Integrate DRR into development planning • Allocate necessary resources
Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and enhance early warning Risk assessment and maps • Hazard, vuln analysis and risk monitoring Loss estimation Early Warning Systems • Monitoring and forecasting • Risk scenarios • Warning and dissemination
Use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience - all levels Focus on: • Information management • Communication, • Education and training (ie in schools), • Risk awareness and media • Research
Reduce underlying risk factors (7 areas) • Incorporate DRR into environmental and natural resource management • Especially in coastal zones, wetlands and watershed management • Integrated water resource management
Increase social and economic resistance and resilience of the poor and most vulnerable • Social protection and safety nets • Financial instruments • Sustainable livelihoods strategies • Poverty reduction strategy papers
Incorporate DRR in urban and land-use planning Same house looking down looking up
Improve building safety and protect critical facilities and infrastructure
Stimulate DRR activities inproduction and service sectors Focus on business continuity
Strengthenprivate sector involvementin DRR • Microfinance, micro-credit • Public-private partnerships • Risk transfer - micro insurance Incorporate DRR into recovery planning • Infrastructure and critical facilities • Employment and livelihoods • Housing • ? resettlement
Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response Strengthen planning for emergency response
National Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction ‘is a nationally owned and led forum or committee of multiple stake-holders. It serves as an advocate of DRR at different levels… Is the coordination mechanism for mainstreaming DRR into development policies and programmes and plans’ Is also the national institutional conduit for ‘Track II’ funding from the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery
Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) Track I funding to ISDR for global and regional partnerships Track II technical assistance to mainstream DRR in Poverty Reduction Strategies Track III standby recovery financing facility in times of disaster
Shifting institutional responses across humanitarian assistance, development engagement and private sector • Risk reduction commitments by UN agencies. • Explicit risk reduction policy commitments by bilateral agencies (ie DFID - 10% humanitarian budgets obligated to risk reduction). Commitments by ngos …