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Chapter 2 Keeping Food Safe

Chapter 2 Keeping Food Safe

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Chapter 2 Keeping Food Safe

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  1. Chapter 2 Keeping Food Safe

  2. What Is aFoodborne Illness? All restaurant and foodservice operations must keep food safe. Every person in the operation must work toward this goal. • A foodborne illness is a disease transmitted …………… • A foodborne-illness outbreak is when ……………………… • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that there will be ________ cases of foodborne illness in the United States each year. • ___________ populations have a higher risk of getting a foodborne illness than others. • The ______________________ is the body’s defense against illness. Older people’s immune system ………………….. 2.1 Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

  3. Forms of Contamination To prevent foodborne illness, it is important to recognize the hazards that can make food unsafe. • A ____________ is something with the potential to cause harm. • In the preparation of food, hazards are divided into three categories: __________________________________. • ____________________ means that harmful things are present in food, making it unsafe to eat. • Food can become unsafe through: • 1. • 2. • 3. • 4. • 5. 2.1 Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

  4. Biological Contamination ____________________are small, living organisms that can be seen only through a microscope. • The four types of pathogens that can contaminate food and cause foodborne illness are: • 1. • 2. • 3. • 4. • Biological toxins: ………………………. 2.1 Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

  5. Biological Contamination (cont.) • Pathogens need six conditions to grow. FAT TOM, for F____, A______, T___________ (FAT), T_____, O_______, and M_______ (TOM). • Food that is most vulnerable for pathogen growth is food that needs ___________________________________, or TCS food for short. • Keep TCS food out of ………………… • _________________________, orfood that can be eaten without further preparation, washing, or cooking, also needs careful handling to prevent contamination. 2.1 Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

  6. FAT TOM Food: high in ___________________ (baked potato, beef) Acidity: grows in food with _____________ (see p. 79) Temperature: grows between __________ degrees (temperature danger zone) Time: don’t leave TCS food at room temperatures longer than _______hours Oxygen: most pathogens need oxygen to grow Moisture: pathogens need ____________ to grow

  7. Biological Contamination (cont.) • __________ are the leading cause of foodborne illness. • …………………………….., but once eaten, can multiply in intestines • Bacteria also cause many foodborne illnesses. • Grows rapidly, …………………………………………………………… • _____________ cannot grow in food. They must live in a host • Host: …………………………………………………………………. • Fungi causes food to spoil. Fungi are found in ……..……………………………………………………… • Mold that is visible to the human eye is actually a ……………………. • ___________can spoil food quickly. The signs of spoilage include the smell or taste of _____________ or ______________ 2.1 Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

  8. Chemical Contamination • Chemicals contaminants come from everyday items that are found in restaurants …………………………. • Store chemicals in a separate area ……………………………………………………. • To prevent ___________________________ don’t store acidic foods in metal containers 2.1 Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

  9. Physical Contamination • Physical contamination happens when objects get into food • Common physical contaminants include: • 1. • 2. • 3. • 4. • 5. 2.1 Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

  10. Allergens A _______________ is the body’s negative reaction to a food protein. • most common allergens: • 1. • 2. • 3. • 4. • 5. • Employees should be aware of major allergens and the menu items that contain them. • Cross-contact occurs whenallergens are transferred from ……………………………………………….. 2.1 Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

  11. U.S. Regulationof Food Safety • The Food and Drug Administration recommends …………. • An ________________ is a formal review or examination conducted to see if an operation is following food safety laws. 2.1 Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

  12. How Foodhandlers Can Contaminate Food Good _______________ is a key factor in the prevention of foodborne illnesses. Successful managers make personal hygiene a priority. • _______________ can contaminate food in a variety of situations. • Foodhandlers are ………………………………….. • To prevent foodhandlers from contaminating food, managers must create personal hygiene policies. These policies must address …………………….. 2.2 Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

  13. Personal Cleanlinessand Work Attire • Dirty clothing carry pathogens that can cause foodborne illnesses. • To avoid spreading foodborne illnesses, foodhandlers should: • 1. • 2. • 3. 2.2 Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

  14. Handwashing _____________ is the most important part of personal hygiene (the entire process should take at least 20 seconds) • Foodhandlers must also wash their hands after: • Using the ____________ • Handling __________________________ • Touching the _______________________ • ____________________, or using a tissue • Eating, drinking, smoking, or chewing gum or tobacco • Handling ____________ that might affect food safety • Taking out _____________ • Clearing ________or busing dirty ________ • Touching clothing or aprons • Handling _____________ 2.2 Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

  15. Proper handwashing 1. wet hands with water …………………. 2. apply _________ 3. scrub hands and arms for _______ seconds 4. rinse 5. dry with ……………………

  16. Bare-Hand Contact/Illness Work Requirements • Don’t use bare hands to handle ________________ • Foodhandlers who are sick can spread ____________________. Depending on the illness, they might not be able to work with food until they recover • See page 100 (table 2.3) 2.2 Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

  17. Cross-Contamination The spread of pathogens from one surface or food to another is called ___________________________ • The steps that an operation takes to buy, store, prepare, cook, and serve food is known as the ____________ • See page 105 (figure 2.19 for order) • All steps in the flow of food ………………………... • prevent _____________________ by separating raw food and ready-to-eat food. 2.3 Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

  18. Time-Temperature Abuse Most foodborne illnesses happen because TCS food has been _________________________________ • Food is time-temperature abused when • it is cooked to ……………………………… • held at the _________ temperature • or _______________________________ incorrectly. • Pathogens grow on food left out at …………………….. • If food is held in this range for _________ hours, throw it out. 2.3 Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

  19. Thermometers Three types of thermometers: (must be calibrated) p. 107 • ______________________________: checking both hot and cold food. • Thermocouples measure temperatures through a metal probe and display them digitally. • Immersion probe for ___________ • _____________ probe for flat equipment (griddle) • _______________ probe for internal temp. of food • ___________ probe for temperature inside ref. or ovens • Infrared thermometers: do not need to touch a ___________ to check its temperature, so there is less chance for cross-contamination and damage to food. 2.3 Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

  20. Purchasing All the food used in a restaurant or foodservice operation should come from approved, reputable suppliers. • Restaurants must make sure that their suppliers use good food safety practices along the ………………………………………………. 2.3 Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

  21. Receiving • Use thermometers to check food _____________ • Reject any items with packaging problems or ______________________________ • Shell eggs must be received at ___degrees or lower • Milk and dairy products must be received at _______ or lower 2.3 Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

  22. Storage Store all ____ food at 41°F or lower, or at 135°F or higher. • Store food prepped in house no longer than __ days • use the ________________________ method. • Store _____meat separately from ready-to-eat food. • Meat cooked to higher temperatures is always stored beneath meat cooked to lower temperatures • 1. • 2. • 3. • 4. 2.3 Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

  23. Preparation Remove from the refrigerator only as much food as can be prepared in a short period of time. • Prepare food in small batches to avoid ____________ • __________ doesn’t kill pathogens; when frozen food is thawed any pathogens in the food will begin to grow • To reduce pathogen growth, never thaw food ……………………………………………… 2.3 Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

  24. Cooking Cooking food to the correct temperature is critical for keeping it safe. • Every TCS food has a minimum __________ temperature that it must reach • Once food reaches its minimum internal temperature, make sure that it stays at that temperature for a specific amount of time • _________ degrees… poultry • _________ degrees… ground meat, injected meats, eggs • _________ degrees… seafood, all types of roasts 2.3 Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

  25. Holding, Cooling,and Reheating If cooked food isn’t served immediately, it must be kept out of the temperature danger zone by cooling it quickly, reheating it correctly, and/or holding it correctly. • To hold TCS food safely, hold hot food at ______or higher and hold cold food at _________ or lower. • Check temperatures every _______hours • Reheat all leftovers to _______ • The food needs to go from storage temperature to ______ within _____ hours and then stay at that temperature for ___ seconds. 2.3 Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

  26. Serving The biggest threat to food that is ready to be served is _____________ • The ______________ staff needs to be just as careful as the kitchen staff. • Food that will be served off-site has to be packed in insulated food containers …………………………… 2.3 Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

  27. The HACCP Plan A food safety management system is a group of procedures and practices that work together to …………………………………………… • A Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point, or HACCP, system identifies major ________at specific points within a food’s flow through the operation. • Conduct a _______ analysis. • Determine ____________ • Establish _____________ • Establish _________ procedures. • Identify __________ actions. • Verify that the system works • Establish procedures for _______________ and documentation. 2.4 Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

  28. HACCP Principles (cont.) • Principle 1: Conduct a Hazard Analysis: • These hazards might be _______________________________ • Principle 2: Determine Critical Control Points (CCPs): • CCP’s: points where hazard(s) can be ………………................ Principle 3:Establish Critical Limits: • Critical limit is a _________________requirement for food 2.4 Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

  29. HACCP Principles (cont.) • Principle 4: Establish Monitoring Procedures: monitor with ______________________ • Principle 5: Identify Corrective Actions: • Corrective action—a step to fix the problem ………………………… • Principle 6: Verify that the System Works: • Evaluate it on a regular basis • Principle 7: Establish Procedures for Record Keeping • Keep all _____________________of procedures. 2.4 Chapter 2 | Keeping Food Safe

  30. Cleaning and Sanitizing ________________ removes food and dirt from surface _________________ reduces pathogens on surface Cleaning and sanitizing a surface or dishes: 1. 2. 3. 4.

  31. Developing a cleaning program 1. _________ should be cleaned 2. _______ should clean it 3. _________ it should be cleaned 4. how it should be cleaned