Objectives : • Learning basic features of the pronoun • Getting familiar with the classifications of the pronoun • Knowing the exact functions of each kind of the pronoun
The classifications of pronouns • Generally, pronouns can be divided into 8 series : • Personal pronoun: I , you, she/he/it , we ,they; me ,you , her/him/it, them, us. • Possessive pronoun: my ,your, her/his/it, their, our; mine, yours, hers/his/its, theirs, ours
Classifications 3.Reflexive pronoun: oneself/oneselves 4.Reciprocal pronoun: each other , one another 5.Demonstrative pronoun: this , that , these, those, it, such, same 6.Interrogative pronoun: who, whom, whose, which, what 7. Relative pronoun: who, whom, whose, which, what that ,as 8. Indefinite pronoun: some , any, etc.
Functions of each kind of pronoun • Personal pronoun • Be used as subject, object and predicative. Object : a. direct and indirect ob. Eg. The stew tastes flat; you’d better salt it. If you see Tim, give him my regards. I give it to him.(√) I give him it.(×) b. Object of prepositions c.1) –I want to have a cup of coffee. –me too. 2)Me get caught? 3) He asked you boys to be quiet.
Usages of “it” 1.Logical subject It is hard to translate this paper. 2.Logical object: He thought it best to be in his guard. 3.Emphasizing structure: It was because I wanted to buy the dictionary that I went to town yesterday.
Possessive pronoun: • attribute: • + “own” showing emphasis • I was invited to my(the parties I have been) first tea party at his party. He taught them their(what they should learn) trades well.
This is your pen. Mine is in the bottle.(sub.) He cooks his own meals and she hers.(ob.) She would shut her into her room, Julio in his.(ob.) Look at the big nose of his.
Reflexive pronoun: 1.She allowed herself a rest. (ob. of predicate) 2.We didn’t know what to do with ourselves. (ob. of preposition) The poor boy was myself. (predicative) 3.The novel itself has glaring faults. (appositive) 4. Some stable phrases, such as between /in/by oneself.
My wife and myself were invited to the party.(subject , emphasize myself) I myself did it finally. (be used behind n./pron. or the end of the sentence to emphasize sth.)
Reciprocal pronoun: Comparison: a. each other (between 2),while one another (among 3); each other (informal) , one another (formal) Functions : You and I understand each other. (ob.) It is sad that ,we meet each other in the street and we can’t recognize one another. (use both to avoid repetition)
They looked at each other’s eyes silently for a moment. (attribute) Each of the twins want to know what other was doing. (each…. other…)
Demonstrative pronoun • this (these) & that (those) 1.Subject eg. This is a clever boy. 2.Object eg. How do you like these? 3.Predicative eg. My point is this. 4.Attribute eg. I like those flowers. 5.this & that used as adverbial: means “so”, eg: The book is about this thick.
6. This is a map of China, and that is one of the world. 7. She is tactful, but I couldn’t call him that. 8. Stable idioms, such as, like this , this and that ,that’s all right, for all that , more than that , and all that ,that’s why, at that, so that’s that.
Such • Such is life.(sub.) • Take from the drawer such as you want.(ob.) • The book is not such that I can recommended.(pred.) • If you a man , show yourself such.(comp.) • He is wise, such man is likely to be successful.(attr.)
6. He was in such a fury as I have never seen. 7. Here is such a big stone that no one could lift it . 8. His carelessness is such as to make it unlikely that he will pass his exam. 9. no such, any such, every such, some such, such as it is , as such.
Same 1. The same is the case with me.(sub.) 2. We must all say the same.(ob.) 3. It’s all the same to me.(pred.) 4. He always sits in the same chair.(attr.) 5. Dutch is of the same origin as English. 6. I live in the same district that he lives in. 7. all the same, much the same
Interrogative & relative pronouns Go to see the clauses. • Noun clause • Pronoun clause • Attributive clause • Adverbial clause
Indefinite pronoun • Normal indefinite pronoun: • some, no, any • some(one, body, thing); any (one, body, thing); no (one, body, thing) • one, none
2. Individual pronoun a) all, every, each, other, another, either, neither, both. b) everybody, everyone , everything 3. Numeral pronoun much, many, few, little, a few, a little, a lot of, lots of, a great deal, a great many