Jabberwocky by lewis carroll
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Jabberwocky by Lewis Carroll. One, two! One, two! And through and through The vorpal blade went snicker-snack! He left it dead, and with its head He went galumphing back. "And, has thou slain the Jabberwock ? Come to my arms, my beamish boy! O frabjous day! Callooh ! Callay !'

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Jabberwocky by lewis carroll
Jabberwockyby Lewis Carroll

One, two! One, two! And through and through

The vorpal blade went snicker-snack!

He left it dead, and with its head

He went galumphing back.

"And, has thou slain the Jabberwock?

Come to my arms, my beamish boy!

O frabjous day! Callooh! Callay!'

He chortled in his joy.

`Twasbrillig, and the slithytoves

Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;

All mimsy were the borogoves,

And the momerathsoutgrabe.

`Twasbrillig, and the slithytoves

Did gyre and gimble in the wabe:

All mimsy were the borogoves,

And the momerathsoutgrabe.

"Beware the Jabberwock, my son!

The jaws that bite, the claws that catch!

Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun

The frumiousBandersnatch!”

He took his vorpal sword in hand:

Long time the manxome foe he sought –

So rested he by the Tumtum tree,

And stood awhile in thought.

‘And, as in uffish thought he stood,

The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame,

Came whiffling through the tulgey wood,

And burbled as it came!

Sonnet 18 by william shakespeare
Sonnet 18by William Shakespeare

1 Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?

2 Thou art more lovely and more temperate.

3 Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,

4 And summer's lease hath all too short a date.

5 Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,

6 And often is his gold complexion dimmed;

7 And every fair from fair sometime declines,

8 By chance, or nature's changing course, untrimmed;

9 But thy eternal summer shall not fade,

10 Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st,

11 Nor shall death brag thou wand'rest in his shade,

12 When in eternal lines to Time thou grow'st.

13 So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see,

14 So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.



(from sonetto, meaning “little sound or song”)

Traditional verse
Traditional Verse

  • Chain Rhyme

  • Limerick

  • Ballad

  • Haiku

  • Sonnet

  • Ode

There are many types of traditional verse. Each type is known for a specific stanza length, rhyme scheme, and rhythm. Here are a few you may have heard of:

About stanzas
about Stanzas

  • A stanza consists of a grouping of two or more lines, set off by a space, that usually has a set pattern of meter and rhyme. The stanza in poetry is synonymous with the paragraph that is seen in prose, related thoughts are grouped into units.

  • In traditional English-language poems, stanzas can be identified and grouped together because they share a rhyme scheme or a fixed number of lines (as in couplet, tercet, quatrain, cinquain, sestet). In much modern poetry, stanzas may be arbitrarily presented on the printed page because of publishing conventions that employ such features as white space or punctuation.

What type of stanza is it
What type of Stanza is it?

  • Look for the space in between line groupings. In poetry, often the blank space surrounding a stanza is as important as the groupings themselves when figuring out organization.

  • Identify how many lines are in each stanza so you know what type of stanza it is.

  • Figure out the rhyme scheme.

Identifying rhyme scheme

When identifying the rhyme scheme of a poem, readers and writers around the world have agreed on a simple system. Use the Alphabet!

Little Miss MuffetAsat on a tuffetAeating her curds and whey. B

When along came a Spider C

and sat down beside her C

and scared Miss Muffet away. B

Who was petrarch
Who was Petrarch?

  • 14th century Italian poet Francisco Petrarca

  • Head over heels in love with an idealized woman named Laura De Noves, whom he had never actually had a conversation

  • Wrote 366 sonnets to her

  • Key idea: the lover’s love for a beautiful, yet unattainable woman is not returned and he (the lover) suffers as if from a bad flu (freezes and burns)

  • Frequent metaphor: love in terms of religion

Petrarchan sonnet form
Petrarchan Sonnet Form

  • 14 lines

  • Lines are divided into two stanzas

  • The first stanza is an octave (eight lines) in which a problem, observation, question, or some other answerable charge is presented

  • The second stanza is a sestet (six lines) in which there is a turn, or volta, that marks a shift in the direction of the foregoing argument or narrative, turning the sestet into the vehicle for the counterargument, clarification, or whatever answer the octave demands

  • Rhyme Scheme: abbaabbacdecde or cdcdcd

Gli occhi di ch io parlai by petrarch
GliOcchi Di Ch' Io Parlaiby Petrarch

Those eyes, 'neath which my passionate rapture rose,

The arms, hands, feet, the beauty that erewhile

Could my own soul from its own self beguile,

And in a separate world of dreams enclose,

The hair's bright tresses, full of golden glows,

And the soft lightning of the angelic smile

That changed this earth to some celestial isle,

Are now but dust, poor dust, that nothing knows.

And yet I live! Myself I grieve and scorn,

Left dark without the light I loved in vain,

Adrift in tempest on a bark forlorn;

Dead is the source of all my amorous strain,

Dry is the channel of my thoughts outworn,

And my sad harp can sound but notes of pain.

Shakespearian sonnet form
Shakespearian Sonnet Form

  • Generally thought to be the easier of the two to write.

  • 14 lines, 10 syllables per line (iambic pentameter)

  • Lines divided in to four stanzas

  • The first three stanzas are four lines each

  • The final stanza is a rhyming couplet, often called a heroic couplet

  • The couplet plays a pivotal role, usually arriving in the form of a conclusion, amplification, or even refutation of the previous three stanzas, often creating an epiphanic quality to the end

  • Rhyme scheme: ababcdcdefefgg

Sonnet 130 by shakespeare
Sonnet 130 by Shakespeare

My mistress' eyes are nothing like the sun;Coral is far more red than her lips' red; If snow be white, why then her breasts are dun; If hairs be wires, black wires grow on her head. I have seen roses damasked, red and white, But no such roses see I in her cheeks; And in some perfumes is there more delightThan in the breath that from my mistress reeks. I love to hear her speak, yet well I knowThat music hath a far more pleasing sound; I grant I never saw a goddess go; My mistress when she walks treads on the ground. And yet, by heaven, I think my love as rareAs any she belied with false compare.

Sonnet vocabulary
Sonnet Vocabulary

  • Iamb – a two syllable measure, unstressed followed by stressed

  • Pentameter – a line consisting of five measures

  • Volta – a turn or change in theme or tone

  • Heroic couplet – a rhyming couplet

  • Conceit - an extended metaphoric comparison that establishes parallels between two seemingly dissimilar things or situations. Petrarch established the practice of including conceits in sonnets by using elaborate comparisons to praise his lady's beauty and portray his own suffering