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Performance of Labour Market in Bangladesh:Recent Changes and Policy Implications Rushidan Islam Rahman December 8, 2005 Paper for presentation at the workshop on Growth and Employment, World Bank office, Dhaka
1.1 Objectives of the study 1.2 Notes on Data 2. Determinants and Pattern of Unemployment & underemployment 2.1 Size of labour force and trends of labour force participation rate 2.2 Unemployment and underemployment, Open unemployment 2.3 Determinants of the magnitude of employment: cross-sectional variations 3. Quality of labour force 4. Economic Growth and Structure of Labour Market Sector composition of labour force: 1991 to 2003 Status of employment 5. Determinants of household income 6. Earning from Paid Employment 6.1 Rural-urban wage differential 6.2 Multiple Regression on earning from paid employment 6.3 Wage trends 6.4 Wage rate and forms of labour contract in agriculture 6.5 Seasonal variation of agricultural wage 7. Gender Dimensions in an Employment Strategy 8. Vision for sectoral priorities: policy options for short-term and medium term
Table 2.1.1 LFPR in Bangladesh: 1991 to 2003 Source: LFS (various years).
Table 2.1.2 LFPR by age group: 1996 to 2003 Source: LFS, various years.
Table 2.1.3 Growth rates of labour force and employment: 1991 to 2003 (Average annual growth rate, %) Source: LFS various years.
Table 2.2.1 Underemployment rate by location (rural-urban): 1996 to 2003 Underemployment rate (per cent) Source: LFS various years.
Table 2.2.2 Underemployment Rate in Bangladesh: 1989 to 1996 Note: * Based on extended definition because data by usual definition is not available. Source:BBS LFS 1999-2000.
Table 2.2.3 Extent of underemployment by sector: 2002-03 & 1999-2000 underemployment rate (per cent) Source: LFS various years.
Table 2.2.4 Extent of underemployment by status of employment: 2002-03 & 1999-2000 underemployment rate (per cent) Source: LFS various years.
Table 2.3.5 Determinants of hours of self employment (2003) Dependent Variable: Log of weekly working hours for self-employed (2003) Source: Estimated from LFS.
Table 2.3.6 Determinants of hours of employment of paid workforce (2003) Dependent Variable: Log of weekly working hours for paid workforce (2003) Source: Estimated from LFS.
Table 3.1.1 Changes in educational attainment of male and female labour force: 1996 to 2003 Source: LFS.
Table 3.1.2 Educational attainment of employed persons by sector: 2003
Table 3.1.3 Employed persons’ education by status of employment: 2003
Table 3.1.4 Education of employed men and women by location: 2003
Table 3.4.1 Unemployment rate among labour force by level of education and sex Source: LFS.
Table 4.1.1 Distribution of employment by broad sector: 1996 to 2003 Source: LFS various years.
Table 4.1.2 GDP growth rate during 1991 to 2003
Table 4.1.3 Distribution of male and female employment by broad economic sector: 1996 to 2003 Source: LFS, 2003.
Table 4.1.4 Distribution of employed persons by industry and sex: 1995-96, 1999-2000 (Per cent) Source: LFS various years.
Table 4.2.1 Employed person by status of employment, gender and locality (Per cent) Source: LFS 2003.
Table 4.2.2 Distribution of employed persons by status of employment and sex: 1996 to 2003 (Per cent) Source: BBS: LFS, various years.
Table 4.2.5 Growth of labour force in ‘employee’ and day labourer category Rate of growth (per cent per annum) Source: Calculated from LFS data.
Table 4.3.1 Distribution of employment by type (formal/informal) : 1996 to 2003 (per cent) Source: LFS various years.
Table 4.4.1 Elasticity of employment with respect to GDP growth by Sector Source: LFS Note: * These sub-sectors contribute an insignificant share of employment.
Table 5.2.1: Determinants of Household Income Dependent Variable: Log of monthly average household income (2003) Source: Estimated from BBS LFS.
Table 6.1.1 Wage Rate in Urban and Rural Areas by Sex and Sector: 2002-2003 Source: Calculated from BBS LFS 2003 data. * The wage rates for all urban and rural are based on weighted average.
Table 6.1.2 Wage rates in urban and rural areas by sector: 1999-2000 Source: Calculated from LFS data. * The wage rates for all urban and rural are based on weighted average.
Table 6.2.1: Determinants of wage: 2003 Dependent Variable: Log of daily Wage for paid workers (2003) Source: Estimated from Table 6.2.1.
Table 6.3.1 Nominal and real wage indices by sector: 1991 to 2004 Note: * (Uses industrial workers’ CPI). Source: Economic Survey 2001, Monthly Statistical Bulletin (various issues), BBS.
Table 6.3.2 Average annual Growth Rate of Real Wage Indices (per cent per year) Source: Col. 3 to 5 calculated from Table 6.3.1 of the present paper.
Table 6.3.3 Changes of nominal wage in cotton textile sector as compared to changes of CPI: 1994 to 2002 Source: BBS Statistical Yearbook, various years.
Table 6.3.4 Comparison of wage rates in Bangladesh with other South Asian Countries Source: Col. 2 (World Bank 2003), Col. 3: Financial Express, Dhaka, 15 June 1995
Table 8.2.1 Women’s role in agriculture and manufacturing sector Source: Calculated for LFS data.