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Chapter Eleven - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter Eleven

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  1. Chapter Eleven Cardiovascular Health

  2. Cardiovascular Disease • Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a disease of the heart and blood vessels • CVD is the leading cause of death in the United States • CVD claims one life every 36 seconds—about 2400 Americans every day • Some CVD risk factors are controllable; others are not • There are many things individuals can do to reduce their risk of CVD

  3. Tobacco Use High Blood Pressure Unhealthy Cholesterol Levels Physical Inactivity Obesity Diabetes Major CVD Risk Factors That Can Be Changed

  4. Blood Pressure Classification Table 11.1

  5. Other Factors That Contribute To CVD • High Triglyceride Levels • Psychological and Social Factors such as: • Stress • Chronic hostility and anger • Suppressing psychological distress • Depression and Anxiety • Social isolation • Low socioeconomic status • Alcohol and Drugs

  6. Major CVD Risk Factors That Can’t Be Changed • Family history/heredity • Multiple genes contribute to CVD risk • Aging • CVD risk goes up with age • Being male • Men face a higher risk, especially earlier in life • Ethnicity • African Americans have higher rates of hypertension and stroke

  7. Possible Risk Factors Currently Being Studied • C-reactive protein (CRP) • Homocysteine • Lipoprotein(a) or Lp(a) • Infectious agents such as: • Chlamydia pneumoniae • Cytomegalovirus • Helicobacter pylori • Metabolic Syndrome (METX)

  8. Major Forms ofCardiovascular Disease • Hypertension • Atherosclerosis • Heart disease and Heart Attacks • Stroke • Congestive heart failure

  9. Stages of Plaque Development Figure 11.3

  10. Atherosclerosis • Atherosclerosis is thickening of the arteries by deposits of fat, cholesterol, and other substances known as the term, ‘plaque’ • The process begins when the lining of the cells become damaged due to several factors such as • Smoking • High blood pressure • Deposits of LDL particles • Blockage in the coronary arteries (coronary heart disease) can lead to a heart attack • Blockage in the brain can result in a stroke

  11. Heart Disease and Heart Attacks • A Heart attack, or myocardial infarction results when the coronary artery becomes blocked • Angina pectoris is chest pain, a signal that the heart is not getting enough oxygen to supply its needs • An Arrhythmia is a condition when electrical impulses that control heartbeat become disrupted, resulting in an irregular pattern • Sudden cardiac death or cardiac arrest are caused by arrhythmias and can result in death, if not treated immediately

  12. Diagnosis and Treatment for Heart Disease • Diagnosis • Exercise stress test • MRI, echocardiogram, angiogram • Treatment • Lifestyle changes (diet and exercise) • Low-dose aspirin therapy • Prescription medications • Balloon angioplasty • Coronary bypass surgery

  13. Stroke • A Stroke or Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) occurs when the blood supply to the brain is cut off • Types of Strokes: • Ischemic stroke = caused by a blood clot • Hemorrhagic stroke = caused by ruptured blood vessel • Strokes may cause paralysis, walking disability, speech impairment, or memory loss • Treatment may include clot-dissolving and antihypertensive drugs

  14. Congestive Heart Failure • Congestive heart failure is a condition resulting from the heart’s inability to pump out all the blood that returns to it • Blood backs up in the veins leading to the heart, causing an accumulation of fluid in various parts of the body • Caused by high blood pressure, heart attack, atherosclerosis, birth defects, rheumatic fever

  15. Eat Heart-Healthy Decreased Fat and Cholesterol Intake Increased Fiber Intake Decreased Sodium/Increased Potassium Intake Moderate Alcohol Consumption DASH (dietary approach to stop hypertension Exercise Regularly Avoid Tobacco Know and Manage Your Blood Pressure Know and manage your Cholesterol Levels Develop Ways to Handle Stress and Anger Know Your Risk Factors Protecting Yourself Against Cardiovascular Disease

  16. Strategies for reducing your risk of cardiovascular disease Figure 11.5

  17. Chapter Eleven Cardiovascular Health