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Ecology

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Ecology

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  1. Ecology The Living World Pages 32-33, 686-735.

  2. Elevation Differences

  3. Which Biome? Why?

  4. Which Biome? Why?

  5. Which Biome? Why?

  6. Rain Shadow Effect

  7. Succession • The series of stages that plants go through from pioneer community to climax community. • Primary vs. Secondary • Pioneer • Seral • Climax

  8. Succession

  9. Reasons for Succession • Tolerance – plants that are able to survive in barren areas with harsh abiotic conditions. Not good competitors. • Facilitation – early succession stages modify the environment to allow more favorable conditions for growth. • Inhibition – environmental changes by one species may negatively impact other species thus causing them to perish.

  10. Trophic Levels

  11. Food Web

  12. Explain the role of each organism

  13. Energy Use

  14. 10% Rule of Energy – Where does the energy go?

  15. Energy Pyramids

  16. Niches • A pattern of life. • The sum total of all the ways and organism uses the resources of the environment – the biological role

  17. Competition • Food, water, shelter, and mates. • Interspecific – • Intraspecific – • Competitive exclusion – If two species are competing for a resource, the species that uses the resource more efficiently will eventually eliminate the other species.

  18. Competition Among Barnacles

  19. Competitive Exclusion

  20. Resource Partitioning • Persistent competition between species is rare, instead species subdivide the niche or resource and use different parts. • Sympatric species – occupy the same area but use different parts of the ecosystem to avoid competition. • Allopatric species – no shared niche due to geographic separation; use the same food and resources because there is no competition.

  21. Resource Partitioning among Sympatric Species

  22. Allopatric Species – No Competition http://www.zo.utexas.edu/faculty/sjasper/images/24.7.jpg

  23. Symbiosis • Mutualism – both benefit • Commensalism – one benefits, one not impacted • Parasitism – one benefits, one negatively impacted, endo and exo parasites

  24. What Type of Symbiosis?

  25. Plant Defenses • Chemical • Structural • Behavioral

  26. Animal Defenses • Defensive Coloration • Chemical Defenses • Behavioral • Structural

  27. Predator Prey Relationships • Predator • Prey

  28. Predator Prey Cycles

  29. Mimicry • Mimicry – When an organism has evolved to look like another organism for protection. • Mullerian Mimicry – Animals that resemble each other and are all protected. Ex. Yellow and black of stinging insects.

  30. Mimicry Batesian Mimicry – one unprotected species has evolved to look like another species that is protected

  31. Population • What is the world population? • How do populations increase or decrease? • What problems are associated with too much growth?

  32. Factors that Increase Population • Natality – birthing, hatching, germination, cloning • Fecundity – physical ability to reproduce • Fertility – actual number of offspring an organism has • Immigration • Survivorship/Life Span/Life expectancy

  33. Factors that Decrease Population Growth • Mortality • Emigration • War • Disease

  34. Regulatory Factors • Density Independent Factors – Impact birth rate or death rate regardless of the number of individuals in the population. • Ex. Lightning Strike or Tornado

  35. Factors that Regulate Population Size • Density Dependent Factors –Reduce birth or death rate because of the size (number of individuals) in a population. • Ex. Competition, predator-prey cycles, stress and crowding.

  36. Age Structure

  37. Logistic vs. Exponential Growth

  38. R- Selected Rapid growth Early reproduction High numbers of young Early maturity Little parental care Shorter life span Ex. Mice, roaches, lice K-Selected Limited resources Slower Growth Intense Parental Care Fewer young Later maturation Longer life span Ex. Humans, cats, cows Life History Adaptations

  39. Which Life Span?

  40. Conclusion Biomes Biogeochemical cycles Food Webs Energy Pyramids Succession Population Relationships Plant and Animal Defenses Mimicry All lecture notes, readings and labs