Spaceship Earth: Our oasis in the emptiness of space. . *. *. *. o. 15 – 20 C. Our star, the Sun, has a profound influence on the climate on Earth. Here, a solar flare is shown, as well as “granules” on the Sun’s surface.
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15 – 20 C
Here, a solar flare is shown, as well as “granules” on the Sun’s surface
The solar constant (the amount of radiation that reaches Earth) varies over the 11 year cycle of solar magnetic activity (X-ray view of 1991-1995 solar cycle).
Did it affect Earth’s climate?
Summertime lows result from uptake of CO2 by vegetation.
Temperatures and amounts of atmospheric CO2 and CH4 during the past 4 glacial-interglacial cycles.The present-day levels of CO2 and CH4 (dashed lines) are higher than anytime during the past 150,000 years!
Hurricane Floyd and North Carolina Flooding
September 7 – 19, 1999
The original was 1.8 m in diameter.
Seismic waves from natural or man-made earthquakes can be used to study and decipher the structure of the interior of Earth.
S waves do not travel through liquids, indicating that the outer core of Earth is liquid.
Relationship between the thermal gradient (i.e., the increase in T with depth) and the melting point of silicates (mantel) and iron (core) as a function of increasing pressure in Earth with depth.
Since the melting point of iron at the pressures between a depth of ~2,900 and ~5,200 km in Earth is below the temperature at these depths, the iron in the outer core must be molten (liquid).