HUMAN RIGHTS , SCIENCE AND ETHICS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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HUMAN RIGHTS , SCIENCE AND ETHICS

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  1. HUMAN RIGHTS , SCIENCE AND ETHICS PROFESSOR DAVID McQUOID-MASON UNIVERSITY OF KWAZULU-NATAL, DURBAN SOUTH AFRICA

  2. HUMAN RIGHTS, SCIENCE AND ETHICS • INTRODUCTION • ETHICAL PRINCIPLES • CONCLUSION

  3. HUMAN RIGHTS, SCIENCE AND ETHICAL PRINCIPLES • SCIENTIFIC ADVANCES OF 18TH , 19TH, 20TH AND 21ST CENTURIES HAVE ALSO BEEN UNDERPINNED BY HUMAN RIGHTS ADVANCES – DESPITE SETBACKS • BIOETHICAL PRINCIPLES CAN USEFULLY BE APPLIED TO SCIENCE IN GENERAL • ETHICAL PRINCIPLES CAN ALSO BE LINKED TO HUMAN RIGHTS • THE GEORGETOWN CLASSIFICATION OF BIOETHICAL PRINCIPLES IS A USEFUL MODEL: • AUTONOMY • BENEFICIENCE • NON-MALEFICENCE • JUSTICE

  4. AUTONOMY • RECOGNIZES THE DUTY ON SCIENTISTS TO RESPECT THE FREEDOM OF INDIVIDUALS AND SOCIETIES TO MAKE DECISIONS ABOUT THEMSELVES • HUMAN RIGHTS: • ARTICLE 3 OF UDHR (LIFE, LIBERTY, SECURITY) • ARTICLE 12 OF UDHR (PRIVACY) • ARTICLE 18 OF UDHR (THOUGHT, CONSCIENCE, RELIGION) • SCIENCE: • RESEARCH ON HUMAN SUBJECTS • GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS • PERVERSE INCENTIVES FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH • CONSEQUENCES OF THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT

  5. BENEFICENCE • RECOGNIZES THE DUTY ON SCIENTISTS TO DO GOOD FOR INDIVIDUALS AND SOCIETY • HUMAN RIGHTS: • ARTICLE 8 OF UDHR (EFFECTIVE REMEDY) • ARTICLE 25 OF UDHR (ADEQUATE STANDARD OF LIVING) • SCIENCE: • COMPENSATION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTERS (EG TOREY CANYON, BHOPAL?) • SPECTACULAR TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES • REDUCTION OF DISEASES (EG SMALL POX) • SANITATION AND WATER • STEM CELL RESEARCH

  6. NON-MALEFICENCE • RECOGNIZES THE DUTY ON SCIENTISTS NOT TO HARM INDIVIDUALS OR SOCIETIES • HUMAN RIGHTS: • ARTICLE 5 OF UDHR (TORTURE, CRUEL, INHUMAN OR DEGRADING TREATMENT) • SCIENCE: • NAZI AND JAPANESE MEDICAL EXPERIMENTS • ATOM BOMB (UTILITARIANISM?) • CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS • ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION (FLOODS, TSUNAMI?)

  7. JUSTICE • RECOGNIZES THE DUTY ON SCIENTISTS TO TREAT INDIVIDUALS AND SOCIETIES EQUALLY AND FAIRLY • HUMAN RIGHTS: • ARTICLE 1 OF UDHR (EQUAL IN DIGNITY AND RIGHTS) • ARTICLE 2 OF UDHR (ALL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMES WITHOUT DISTINCTION) • ARTICLE 7 OF UDHR (ALL EQUAL BEFORE THE LAW – PROTECTION AGAINST DISCRIMINATION) • SCIENCE: • EUGENICS (USA, GERMANY, SOUTH AFRICA) • RACE CLASSIFICATION CRITERIA • APARTHEID IN ARCHITECTURE

  8. CONCLUSION • SCIENTISTS SHOULD FOLLOW ETHICAL PRINCIPLES OF AUTONOMY, BENEFICENCE, NON-MALEFICENCE AND JUSTICE • IF ABOVE ETHICAL PRINCIPLES ARE FOLLOWED THE CONDUCT OF SCIENTISTS WOULD BE CONSISTENT WITH INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS NORMS AND STANDARDS • IF SUCH PRINCIPLES ARE FOLLOWED BY SCIENTISTS LIVING IN DEMOCRATIC COUNTRIES THEIR CONDUCT WILL ALSO BE CONSISTENT WITH THEIR COUNTRIES’ CONSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL REQUIREMENTS