The Scientific Method: Tutorial

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Start from beginning. The Scientific Method: Tutorial. Designing the experiment. Variable practice. Graphing the data. Place your keyboard aside. Only use your mouse or mouse pad (laptops). . Conclusion. Introduction: The Scientific Method.

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Presentation Transcript

Start from

beginning

### The Scientific Method: Tutorial

Designing the

experiment

Variable

practice

Graphing the

data

Conclusion

Introduction: The Scientific Method

The scientific method is a series of steps used by scientists to help them solve problems. In principle, the scientific method is fairly straight forward so long as you can remember a few basic concepts. A valid experiment will identify a problem, research the problem to see if others have collected data for similar problems, create a hypothesis (temporary solution to the problem), collect data by performing an experiment, analyze the data collected, and report your findings.

Introduction: The Scientific Method

The scientific method is a series of steps used by scientists to help them solve problems. In principal, the scientific method is fairly straight forward so long as you can remember a few basic concepts. A valid experiment will identify a problem, research the problem to see if others have collected data for similar problems, create a hypothesis (temporary solution to the problem), collect data by performing an experiment, analyze the data collected, and report your findings.

Setting up the experiment can be the toughest part of the scientific method for young scientists. A poorly designed experiment can make your data hard to understand and even meaningless. Therefore, the purpose of this tutorial is to help you learn basic fundamentals to help you design an experiment and interpret the data collected.

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Identifying a Problem

Kobe-cyol (fictional) is a prescription medication designed to relieve arthritis pain.

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Identifying a Problem

Kobe-cyol (fictional) is a prescription medication designed to relieve arthritis pain.

Jane and Jerry are both young doctors who have heard rumors that Kobe-cyol can dangerously raise the blood pressure of patients who use the drug. This can be a serious medical concern because if the patients blood pressure is too high, they can suffer a heart attack and possibly die. This is the first stage of the scientific method, identifying a problem.

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Identifying a Problem

Kobe-cyol (fictional) is a prescription medication designed to relieve arthritis pain.

Jane and Jerry are both young doctors who have heard rumors that Kobe-cyol can dangerously raise the blood pressure of patients who use the drug. This can be a serious medical concern because if the patients blood pressure is too high, they can suffer a heart attack and possibly die. This is the first stage of the scientific method, identifying a problem.

What is the initial problem that Jane and Jerry have identified?

But what is the connection?

But what is the connection?

Some patients

take Kobe-cyol.

Some patients are

at risk of heart attack.

This information is not given in the story.

Correct.

Some patients have

high blood pressure.

Kobe-cyol may dangerously raise blood pressures.

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Researching the Problem

Jane and Jerry have agreed to meet at the UCLA medical library to research their problem. They searched countless journals to see if other doctors have performed work on the effects of Kobe-cyol, but they did not find the answer to their problem question. They will need to perform their own experiment.

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Researching the Problem

Jane and Jerry have agreed to meet at the UCLA medical library to research their problem. They searched countless journals to see if other doctors have performed work on the effects of Kobe-cyol, but they did not find the answer to their problem question. They will need to perform their own experiment.

Meet the volunteers

Even though Jane and Jerry have discussed the risks with their patients about the use of Kobe-cyol, they have found volunteers to test the medication. Together, Jane and Jerry come up with a plan to test Kobe-cyol and the possible blood pressure risk.

back

Researching the Problem

Jane and Jerry have agreed to meet at the UCLA medical library to research their problem. They searched countless journals to see if other doctors have performed work on the effects of Kobe-cyol, but they did not find the answer to their problem question. They will need to perform their own experiment.

Even though Jane and Jerry have discussed the risks with their patients about the use of Kobe-cyol, they have found volunteers to test the medication. Together, Jane and Jerry come up with a plan to test Kobe-cyol and the possible blood pressure risk.

Now that Jane and Jerry have identified their problem and performed research, it is time for them to create a hypothesis that answers their problem. Remember, the problem they are trying to answer is:

“Does Kobe-cyol raise the blood pressure of their patients?”

Creating the Hypothesis

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If a person uses

Kobe-cyol, then they

may have higher

than normal

blood pressure.

If a person is

overweight, then they

may have higher

than normal

blood pressure.

If a person

has high blood

pressure, then they

must use Kobe-cyol.

This may be true but Jane and Jerry are not testing a person’s weight.

Correct. Press the NEXT button when ready.

There is no reason to believe this. There are numerous reasons why a person could have high blood pressure.

Now that Jane and Jerry have identified their problem and performed research, it is time for them to create a hypothesis that answers their problem. Remember, the problem they are trying to answer is: “Does Kobe-cyol raise the blood pressure of patients?”

The hypothesis is a possible solution to this problem and should be worded as an “If…then” statement. Click on the box below that would be a possible solution to this problem. Which will be our hypothesis?

Designing the Experiment

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Jane and Jerry are ready to design and perform their experiment to test their hypothesis. But how do you design an experiment in the first place? Keep in mind our problem question:

“Does Kobe-cyol affect a person’s blood pressure?”

Designing the Experiment

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Jane and Jerry are ready to design and perform their experiment to test their hypothesis. But how do you design an experiment in the first place? Keep in mind our problem question:

“Does Kobe-cyol affect a person’s blood pressure?”

Their experiment will need to test the blood pressure of volunteers. Jane and Jerry have found 50 patients who are willing to volunteer for this experiment. Valid experiments usually create two groups of test subjects.

Designing the Experiment

back

Jane and Jerry are ready to design and perform their experiment to test their hypothesis. But how do you design an experiment in the first place? Keep in mind our problem question:

“Does Kobe-cyol affect a person’s blood pressure?”

Their experiment will need to test the blood pressure of volunteers. Jane and Jerry have found 50 patients who are willing to volunteer for this experiment. Valid experiments usually create two groups of test subjects.

One group is called the CONTROL group. Participants of this group are not given the desired treatment (Kobe-cyol). Therefore, the control group is used as a comparison group.

Designing the Experiment

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Jane and Jerry are ready to design and perform their experiment to test their hypothesis. But how do you design an experiment in the first place? Keep in mind our problem question:

“Does Kobe-cyol affect a person’s blood pressure?”

Their experiment will need to test the blood pressure of volunteers. Jane and Jerry have found 50 patients who are willing to volunteer for this experiment. Valid experiments usually create two groups of test subjects.

One group is called the CONTROL group. Participants of this group are not given the desired treatment (Kobe-cyol). Therefore, the control group is used as a comparison group.

The second group is called the EXPERIMENTAL group. Participants of this group are given the desired treatment (Kobe-cyol). The experimental subjects will be compared to the control group to see if the treatment worked or not.

Designing the Experiment

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Jane and Jerry decide to separate the 50 people randomly into two groups of 25 patients each.

Designing the Experiment

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Group A

Group A:

To start, the 25 patients had their blood pressures recorded.

Jane and Jerry decide to separate the 50 people randomly into two groups of 25 patients each.

Designing the Experiment

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Group A

Group A:

To start, the 25 patients had their blood pressures recorded.

Then, the 25 patients of this group were not given Kobe-cyol.

Jane and Jerry decide to separate the 50 people randomly into two groups of 25 patients each.

Designing the Experiment

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Group A

Group A:

To start, the 25 patients had their blood pressures recorded.

Then, the 25 patients of this group were not given Kobe-cyol.

The 25 patients were instructed to eat and exercise according to specific instructions.

Jane and Jerry decide to separate the 50 people randomly into two groups of 25 patients each.

Designing the Experiment

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Group A

Group A:

To start, the 25 patients had their blood pressures recorded.

Then, the 25 patients of this group were not given Kobe-cyol.

The 25 patients were instructed to eat and exercise according to specific instructions.

After one month, the 25 patients would return to have their blood pressures checked again.

Jane and Jerry decide to separate the 50 people randomly into two groups of 25 patients each.

Designing the Experiment

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Group B

Group B:

To start, the 25 patients had their blood pressures recorded.

Jane and Jerry decide to separate the 50 people randomly into two groups of 25 patients each.

Designing the Experiment

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Group B

Group B:

To start, the 25 patients had their blood pressures recorded.

Then, the 25 patients of this group were given typical doses of Kobe-cyol.

Jane and Jerry decide to separate the 50 people randomly into two groups of 25 patients each.

Designing the Experiment

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Group B

Group B:

To start, the 25 patients had their blood pressures recorded.

Then, the 25 patients of this group were given typical doses of Kobe-cyol.

The 25 patients were instructed to eat and exercise according to the same instructions as group A.

Jane and Jerry decide to separate the 50 people randomly into two groups of 25 patients each.

Designing the Experiment

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Group B

Group B:

To start, the 25 patients had their blood pressures recorded.

Then, the 25 patients of this group were given typical doses of Kobe-cyol.

The 25 patients were instructed to eat and exercise according to the same instructions as group A.

After one month, the 25 patients would return to have their blood pressures checked again.

Jane and Jerry decide to separate the 50 people randomly into two groups of 25 patients each.

Designing the Experiment

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Group B

Group A

Is Group A the control group or the experimental group?

Experimental

group

Control

group

Not quite. Remember that the experimental group is given the treatment. In this case, group A is not given Kobe-cyol.

Correct. Because no treatment was given to Group A, that makes them the control group.

Jane and Jerry decide to separate the 50 people randomly into two groups of 25 patients each.

Designing the Experiment

back

Group B

Group A

Is group B considered the control group or the experimental group?

Experimental

group

Control

group

Not quite. The control group is the one that does not receive treatment. Group B does receive treatment.

Correct. Since group B received the treatment (Kobe-cyol) they are the experimental group.

Jane and Jerry decide to separate the 50 people randomly into two groups of 25 patients each.

Identifying Variables

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The independent variable is the factor that differs between the control group and experimental group. A good experiment should only have 1 difference between the two groups.

Group B

Group A

Identifying Variables

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The independent variable is the factor that differs between the control group and experimental group. A good experiment should only have 1 difference between the two groups.

Group B

Group A

Number of

people

Diet habits

Medication

taken

Exercise

habits

No. Each group had 25 people.

No. Each group followed the same habits.

Correct.

No. Each group followed the same habits.

What is different between Group A and Group B?

(What is the independent variable of this experiment?)

Identifying Variables

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Group B

Group A

The data measured is the dependent variable. What is the dependent variable in this experiment?

No. Body weight was never collected

No. This is the independent variable.

Body

weight

Blood

pressure

Kobe-cyol

taken

Heart

rates

Correct.

No. Heart rates were never collected.

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Variable Practice: Farmer Bob

Before proceeding, let’s stop for a moment and get some practice identifying variables and parts of an experiment.

Farmer Bob has always used Grow-Rite Fertilizer on his crops, but wants to try Ever-Grow Fertilizer. He sections off two large areas of his field. In section A, he waters his crops as usual and adds Grow-Rite. In section B, he waters his crops as usual but adds Ever-Grow fertilizer. After 1 growing season, he records the growth of the crops.

What is the independent variable of Farmer Bob’s experiment?

Hmmm. Remember the independent variable is what differs between the two groups. Try again.

Group A crops

The type of

fertilizer used

Group B crops

The height of

the crops

Hmmm. Remember the independent variable is what differs between the two groups. Try again.

Correct.

Hmmm. Remember the independent variable is what differs between the two groups. Try again.

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Variable Practice: Farmer Bob

Before proceeding, let’s stop for a moment and get some practice identifying variables and parts of an experiment.

Farmer Bob has always used Grow-Rite Fertilizer on his crops, but wants to try Ever-Grow Fertilizer. He sections off two large areas of his field. In section A, he waters his crops as usual and adds Grow-Rite. In section B, he waters his crops as usual but adds Ever-Grow fertilizer. After 1 growing season, he records the growth of the crops.

What is the dependent variable of Farmer Bob’s experiment?

Correct.

The type of

fertilizer used

Group A crops

Group B crops

The height of

the crops

Hmmm. Remember the dependent variable is the data collected. Try again.

Hmmm. Remember the dependent variable is the data collected. Try again.

Hmmm. Remember the dependent variable is the data collected. Try again.

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Variable Practice: USA Military

The United States military wants to see if soldiers with only 4 hours of sleep can operate at the same level as those who normally get 7 hours of sleep. One hundred soldiers are allowed to only sleep for 4 hours a night and another hundred are allowed to sleep for 7 hours a night. During the day, the soldiers are tested for marksmanship on the firing range.

What is the independent variable of the military experiment?

.

.

.

Hmmm. Remember the independent variable is what differs between the two groups. Try again.

Correct.

The ammunition

used

Amount of

sleep given

Score on the

firing range

The number

of soldiers

Hmmm. Remember the independent variable is what differs between the two groups. Try again.

Hmmm. Remember the independent variable is what differs between the two groups. Try again.

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Variable Practice: USA Military

The United States military wants to see if soldiers with only 4 hours of sleep can operate at the same level as those who normally get 7 hours of sleep. One hundred solders are allowed to only sleep for 4 hours a night and another hundred are allowed to sleep for 7 hours a night. During the day, the soldiers are tested for marksmanship on the firing range.

What is the control group of the military experiment?

Hmmm. Remember the control group are those who are not given the experimental treatment. Try again.

Correct.

Soldiers with

7 hours sleep

Soldiers with

4 hours sleep

Score on the

firing range

The number

of soldiers

Hmmm. Remember the control group are those who are not given the experimental treatment. Try again.

Hmmm. Remember the control group are those who are not given the experimental treatment. Try again.

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Variable Practice: USA Military

The United States military wants to see if soldiers with only 4 hours of sleep can operate at the same level as those who normally get 7 hours of sleep. One hundred solders are allowed to only sleep for 4 hours a night and another hundred are allowed to sleep for 7 hours a night. During the day, the soldiers are tested for marksmanship on the firing range.

What is the dependent variable of the military experiment?

Hmmm. Remember the dependent variable is the data collected. Try again.

Hmmm. This was the independent variable. Try again.

The ammunition

used

Amount of

sleep given

Score on the

firing range

The number

of soldiers

Hmmm. Remember the dependent variable is the data collected. Try again.

Correct.

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Back to Our Experiment

Let’s look at the blood pressures at the start of this experiment. Where’s the data Jerry?

I have it right here Jane.

At the start of the experiment, remember that everyone had their blood pressures measured. On average, both the control group and the experimental group had a systolic blood pressure of 120. This is a fairly healthy blood pressure. Click the “? Buttons” below to continue.

?

?

next

Day 2

Day 3

Day 4

Day 5

Day 6

Day 7

Day 8

Day 9

Day 10

Day 11

Day 12

Day 13

Day 14

Day 15

Day 16

Day 17

Day 18

Day 19

Day 20

Day 21

Day 22

Day 23

Day 24

Day 25

Day 26

Day 27

Day 28

Day 29

back

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1 Month Later

I’m so anxious. I hope our hypothesis was valid.

Finally our experiment is finished. It’s been 30 days. Let’s see the data.

After one month all 50 people returned to have their blood pressure examined. Click the “?” boxes below to reveal the results.

Those who were not using Kobe-cyol maintained their healthy blood pressure of 120. However, those who used Kobe-cyol now had an average blood pressure of 145. Time to make our graph.

?

?

A title needs to be clear to a reader. Avoid titles such as “Biology graph” and “Our data” because these titles don’t tell us what the graph really shows. Click on the good title.

Now we need to label the X and Y axis.

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Graphing the Data

No. This is too vague.

The results of a month long test

Affects of Kobe-Cyol on blood pressure

Affects of Kobe-cyol on blood pressure

Graphs makes our data easier to understand.

Others will read our results once we share our findings.

Pictures are worth a thousand words after all.

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Graphing the Data

Affects of Kobe-Cyol on blood pressure

Again. Be specific. Which label is specific on the Y axis?

Now for the X axis. Which is specific?

Amount of what? This is too vague.

Amount

Blood pressure values

(mm Hg)

Blood pressure values (mm Hg)

Be specific.

Length of time (days)

Length of time (days)

Time

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Graphing the Data

Affects of Kobe-Cyol on blood pressure

Now we gotta number the X axis for 30 days.

Keep in mind our data.

Control group:

Start: 120

End: 120

Experiment group:

Start: 120

End: 145

We must use equal intervals to number the Y axis.

180

170

160

150

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Blood pressure values (mm Hg)

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

Length of time (days)

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Graphing the Data

Affects of Kobe-Cyol on blood pressure

Since we have two groups to graph, we need two different line patterns.

180

170

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150

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70

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50

40

30

20

10

0

Blood pressure values (mm Hg)

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

Length of time (days)

back

Graphing the Data

Affects of Kobe-Cyol on blood pressure

Since we have two groups to graph, we need two different line patterns.

Solid line will represent the control group.

180

170

160

150

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Blood pressure values (mm Hg)

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

Length of time (days)

back

Graphing the Data

Affects of Kobe-Cyol on blood pressure

Since we have two groups to graph, we need two different line patterns.

Solid line will represent the control group.

180

170

160

150

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

KEY

Solid = control group

Blood pressure values (mm Hg)

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

Length of time (days)

back

Graphing the Data

Affects of Kobe-Cyol on blood pressure

Since we have two groups to graph, we need two different line patterns.

Solid line will represent the control group.

Dotted line will represent the experimental group.

180

170

160

150

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

KEY

Solid = control group

Blood pressure values (mm Hg)

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

Length of time (days)

back

Graphing the Data

Affects of Kobe-Cyol on blood pressure

Since we have two groups to graph, we need two different line patterns.

Solid line will represent the control group.

Dotted line will represent the experimental group.

180

170

160

150

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

KEY

Solid = control group

dots = experi-mental group

Blood pressure values (mm Hg)

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

Length of time (days)

back

Graphing the Data

Affects of Kobe-Cyol on blood pressure

Now we are ready to fill in the graph itself. Let’s graph the people who used Kobe-cyol first.

People who used Kobe-cyol

(Experiment group):

Start: 120

End: 145

Now connect the two dots.

180

170

160

150

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

KEY

Solid = control group

dots = experi-mental group

Blood pressure values (mm Hg)

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

Length of time (days)

back

Graphing the Data

Affects of Kobe-Cyol on blood pressure

Now let’s graph the people who did not use Kobe-cyol (Control group):

Start: 120

End: 120

Now connect the dots.

180

170

160

150

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

KEY

Solid = control group

dots = experi-mental group

Blood pressure values (mm Hg)

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

Length of time (days)

back

What is the data telling us?

Affects of Kobe-Cyol on blood pressure

The experimental group’s blood pressure increased. We need to examine what was different between Group A and Group B?

Number of people?

Exercise habits?

Diet habits?

Length of testing time?

Type of medication taken?

180

170

160

150

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

correct

KEY

Solid = control group

dots = experi-mental group

different

same

correct

different

same

Blood pressure values (mm Hg)

correct

different

same

correct

different

same

different

same

correct

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

Length of time (days)

back

What is the data telling us?

same

Affects of Kobe-Cyol on blood pressure

Number of people

Exercise habits

Diet habits

Length of testing time

Type of medication taken

Oh wow! Was Kobe-cyol responsible for the elevated blood pressure of the experimental group?

same

180

170

160

150

140

130

120

110

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

same

KEY

Solid = control group

dots = experi-mental group

same

different

Blood pressure values (mm Hg)

Correct! It was the only difference so it must be the cause.

Yes

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

No

Are you sure? The only difference between the groups was Kobe-cyol.

Length of time (days)

back

Now that our graph is finished, what does it tell us about our hypothesis? If you forgot, the hypothesis was:

If a person uses Kobe-cyol, then they may have higher than normal blood pressure.

One experiment proves nothing. More tests are required to state this.

Are you sure? The data agrees with the prediction.

The hypothesis was proven correct.

The hypothesis is proven wrong.

The hypothesis appears wrong.

The hypothesis appears valid.

Correct.

Are you sure? The data agrees with the prediction.

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Stating a Conclusion

I think we should take the 25 patients off Kobe-cyol immediately and continue to monitor their health.

Wow! I know it is only 1 experiment, but we need to report our findings so others can check our work.

A conclusion should be a clear and understandable summary of the main idea learned from the experiment. Be straight to the point. Which would be a good summary?

Correct

This may be true, but it is not the main idea learned.

This may be true, but it doesn’t explain your results.

Kobe-cyol was the independent variable of this experiment.

Kobe-cyol makes people sick and unhealthy.

Our experiment was valid and well deigned.

Kobe-cyol raises the blood pressure of normal individuals.

This may be true, but it is too vague.

back

In order for others to confirm our findings, our results need to be shared with others. There are many journals that collect research performed by scientists around the world. Even newspapers and magazines will often pick up on a study of great importance. This is how information is spread around the world about various scientific findings.

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In order for others to confirm our findings, our results need to be shared with others. There are many journals that collect research performed by scientists around the world. Even newspapers and magazines will often pick up on a study of great importance. This is how information is spread around the world about various scientific findings.

Experiments are valid when the rules of the scientific method have been followed. This method reduces errors, eliminates bias, and advances our understanding of the world in which we live.

Let’s Review:

#1) What is a tentative solution to a problem called?

hypothesis

independent

variable

dependent

variable

control group

correct

Try again.

Try again.

Try again.

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Review #2

Which variable differs between the control group and the experimental group?

Dependent variable

Independent variable

This is the data that is collected because of the change.

Correct

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Review #3

Which hypothesis best fits the problem question below?

Problem question: Why do some people develop diabetes?

A diet that is high in

That may answer the question, but it is not worded in proper format.

That may answer the question, but it is not worded in proper format.

Diabetes is caused by

a high sugary diet.

Correct.

If a person has a diet that is high in sugar,

then that may lead to diabetes.

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Review #4

Pretend we performed the following experiment with Kobe-cyol.

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Review #4

Pretend we performed the following experiment with Kobe-cyol.

The control group (Group A) consisted of 35 people…

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Review #4

Pretend we performed the following experiment with Kobe-cyol.

The control group (Group A) consisted of 35 people…

The experimental group (Group B) consisted of 25 people…

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Review #4

Pretend we performed the following experiment with Kobe-cyol.

The control group (Group A) consisted of 35 people…

who exercised only with Yoga…

The experimental group (Group B) consisted of 25 people…

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Review #4

Pretend we performed the following experiment with Kobe-cyol.

The control group (Group A) consisted of 35 people…

who exercised only with Yoga…

The experimental group (Group B) consisted of 25 people…

who were not allowed any exercise…

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Review #4

Pretend we performed the following experiment with Kobe-cyol.

The control group (Group A) consisted of 35 people…

who exercised only with Yoga…

only ate vegetarian meals…

The experimental group (Group B) consisted of 25 people…

who were not allowed any exercise

back

Review #4

Pretend we performed the following experiment with Kobe-cyol.

The control group (Group A) consisted of 35 people…

who exercised only with Yoga…

only ate vegetarian meals…

The experimental group (Group B) consisted of 25 people…

who were not allowed any exercise

only ate vegetarian meals…

back

Review #4

Pretend we performed the following experiment with Kobe-cyol.

The control group (Group A) consisted of 35 people…

who exercised only with Yoga…

only ate vegetarian meals…

had an average age of 40 years…

The experimental group (Group B) consisted of 25 people…

who were not allowed any exercise

only ate vegetarian meals…

back

Review #4

Pretend we performed the following experiment with Kobe-cyol.

The control group (Group A) consisted of 35 people…

who exercised only with Yoga…

only ate vegetarian meals…

had an average age of 40 years…

The experimental group (Group B) consisted of 25 people…

who were not allowed any exercise

only ate vegetarian meals…

had an average age of 40 years…

back

Review #4

Pretend we performed the following experiment with Kobe-cyol.

The control group (Group A) consisted of 35 people…

who exercised only with Yoga…

only ate vegetarian meals…

had an average age of 40 years…

and were not given Kobe-cyol.

The experimental group (Group B) consisted of 25 people…

who were not allowed any exercise

only ate vegetarian meals…

had an average age of 40 years…

back

Review #4

Pretend we performed the following experiment with Kobe-cyol.

The control group (Group A) consisted of 35 people…

who exercised only with Yoga…

only ate vegetarian meals…

had an average age of 40 years…

and were not given Kobe-cyol.

The experimental group (Group B) consisted of 25 people…

who were not allowed any exercise

only ate vegetarian meals…

had an average age of 40 years…

and were given Kobe-cyol.

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Review #4

Pretend we performed the following experiment with Kobe-cyol.

The control group (Group A) consisted of 35 people…

who exercised only with Yoga…

only ate vegetarian meals…

had an average age of 40 years…

and were not given Kobe-cyol.

The experimental group (Group B) consisted of 25 people…

who were not allowed any exercise

only ate vegetarian meals…

had an average age of 40 years…

and were given Kobe-cyol.

How many independent variables would be in this experiment?

• Correct
• Number of people
• Exercise
• Kobe-cyol

How many times do the groups differ?

ONE

How many times do the groups differ?

TWO

How many times do the groups differ?

THREE

FOUR

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Review #5

Pretend we performed the following experiment with Kobe-cyol.

The control group (Group A) consisted of 35 people…

who exercised only with Yoga…

only ate vegetarian meals…

had an average age of 40 years…

and were not given Kobe-cyol.

The experimental group (Group B) consisted of 25 people…

who were not allowed any exercise

only ate vegetarian meals…

had an average age of 40 years…

and were given Kobe-cyol.

Why is this a poorly designed experiment?

Not true. There should be ONE difference.

This is simply not true.

There are too many differences between the groups.

The two groups should be identical in every way.

There are no independent variables to this experiment.

correct

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The end!

You will be expected to use the scientific method throughout the course of the school year. I hope this tutorial simplified how it can help solve problems. Be sure your name is on your paper before submitting your work.

#1) What is a tentative solution to a problem called?

You chose “Independent variable.” That is incorrect.

An independent variable is the factor that differs between a control and experimental group.

In the army example, some soldiers slept for 4 hours a day while others slept for 7 hours a day. The amount of sleep was different between the two groups. That is an independent variable.

Try again

#1) What is a tentative solution to a problem called?

You chose “dependent variable.” That is incorrect.

The dependent variable is the data collected during an experiment.

In the army example, the sleep deprived soldiers were tested for their shooting accuracy. Their shooting scores is an example of a dependent variable.

Try again

#1) What is a tentative solution to a problem called?

You chose “control group.” That is incorrect.

A control is the part of an experiment that receives the normal conditions.

In the army example, the soldiers who normally slept 7 hours a night represented the control group. The soldiers who slept 4 hours a night represented the experimental group.

Try again

#2) Which variable differs between the control group and the experimental group?

You chose “dependent variable.” That is incorrect.

The dependent variable is the data collected during an experiment.

In the army example, the sleep deprived soldiers were tested for their shooting accuracy. Their shooting scores is an example of a dependent variable.

Try again