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Behavior Modification II: ABC Complexities. Lesson 7. ABCs of Behavior. Antecedents Occur before behavior Cue, setting, context Behavior Individuals action Perform or withhold Consequences Events that follow behavior Increases, decreases, or no effect on behavior ~.

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abcs of behavior
ABCs of Behavior
  • Antecedents
    • Occur before behavior
    • Cue, setting, context
  • Behavior
    • Individuals action
    • Perform or withhold
  • Consequences
    • Events that follow behavior
    • Increases, decreases, or no effect on behavior ~
contingencies of reinforcement
Contingencies of Reinforcement
  • Contingency
    • Relationship of ABCs
    • One event depends on another
  • Behavior contingent on…
    • Antecedents
    • Consequences
    • i.e., controlling variables
  • Complex contingencies
    • Multiple A, B, and/or Cs ~
contingencies of reinforcement1
Contingencies of Reinforcement
  • Contingency
    • Relationship of ABCs
    • One event depends on another
  • Behavior contingent on…
    • Antecedents
    • Consequences
    • i.e., controlling variables
  • Complex contingencies
    • Multiple A, B, and/or Cs ~
complex contingencies
Complex Contingencies
  • Example: SIB; Answering door
    • ABCs?
  • Alternate
    • antecedents?
    • behaviors?
    • consequences?
  • Importance of functional analysis
    • May require different treatment ~
complex contingencies1
Complex Contingencies
  • Example: smoking
    • ABCs?
  • Alternate
    • antecedents?
    • behaviors?
    • consequences? ~
types of antecedents
Types of Antecedents
  • Two main categories
    • Prerequisites
    • Stimulus control
  • Prerequisites
    • knowledge
    • skills
    • resources ~
antecedents stimulus control
Antecedents: Stimulus Control
  • Stimulus Control
    • Discriminative stimuli
    • Prompts
    • Setting events
  • Discriminative stimuli (SD/ S)
    • Signal that indicates likely outcome
    • RFT or punishment
    • Traffic light; fire alarm; out of order sign
    • Stimulus control: SD vs S ~
antecedents prompts
Antecedents: Prompts
  • Specific event
    • Directly facilitates performance
    • Instructions, examples, modeling
  • Examples
    • teaching computer program
    • Experimental procedures ~
antecedents prompts1
Antecedents: Prompts
  • Instructions/Requests
    • High vs low probability
    • High then Low   compliance
    • Holding still during medical procedure
  • Fading
    • Gradual removal of prompts
    • All or some ~
antecedents setting events
Antecedents: Setting Events
  • Context, conditions
    • indirect effects
    • Motivational; emotional state
    • Get fired; get a raise
  • Establishing operation
      • (type of setting event)
    • alters effectiveness of consequences
    • Influences frequency of behavior
    • Deprivation vs. satiation ~
behaviors
Behaviors
  • Target behaviors
    • To increase or decrease
  • Shaping
    • Successive approximations
  • Chaining
    • Behaviors  sequence of responses
    • Break into individual responses
    • Forward chaining
    • Backward chaining ~
behaviors chaining
Behaviors: Chaining
  • Forward chaining
    • Start w/ first behavior in sequence
    • e.g., injections, SPSS
  • Backward chaining
    • Start w/ last behavior in sequence
    • e.g.; learning to put on shirt
    • Immediate RFT of completed behavior
    • Needs no explanation of relationships between steps ~
consequences
Consequences
  • Reinforcement
    • Positive & negative
    • Strengthen behavior
  • Punishment
    • Positive & negative
    • weaken behavior
  • Extinction
    • Absence of SR
    • reverses behavioral change ~
generalization discrimination
Generalization & Discrimination
  • Stimulus SD (S+)
    • Generalization & discrimination
  • Response Generalization
    • Changes in behaviors other than target behaviors
    •  smiling   laughing & talking
    • Physical punishment of B   social behavior;  hostility
  • Response covariation
    • Clusters of Bs change together ~
complexities of behavior modification
Complexities of Behavior Modification
  • Require
    • Careful analysis
    • Different treatments
    • Consideration of unintended changes in behavior
  • Importance of detailed functional analysis ~