Disruptive Behavior Disorders. Creating an understanding for elementary and middle school teachers by piecing together the puzzle of disruptive behavior disorders. Amelia Weishaar . Learner Objectives. Participants in this seminar will be able to:
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Creating an understanding for elementary
and middle school teachers by piecing
together the puzzle of
disruptive behavior disorders.
Participants in this seminar will be able to:
“DBDs are the most common mental health disorder among children with a rate of 4-9% of all children from birth to 18 years old.”1
(Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Official Action, Jan 2007)
The main category in the DSM-IV-TR that Disruptive Behavior Disorders fall into is:
Attention-Deficit Disorder and Disruptive Behavior Disorders
Disruptive Behavior disorders are split into three more specific diagnoses:
“A pattern of negativistic, hostile, disobedient and defiant behaviors. Children display four or more of these behaviors for more than 6 months
“Repetitive and persistent pattern of behaviors in which the basic rights of others or rules of society are violated. Three or more of the following behavior will have occurred within the last 12 months.
Childhood-onset vs. Adolesent-onset7
- Average age is 9 years old
- Males more likely to be affected
- Prognosis is poor as the earlier the age of CD syptom onset, the more severe the disorder is likely to be
- Usually less severe
- Tends to coincide with family or peer problems.
- Aggression may or may not be present.
- Males = females for prevalence rates.
- Adolescent-onset of CD has a much better progonsis
This category of DBD was created for children who demonstrate similar behaviors as children with ODD or CD but do not display the same frequency /severity and only met one or two of the behavior criteria for this disorder.
Like ODD and CD, this disorder causes significant impairment in the child’s life.
ODD – range 3% to 22.5% with median of 3.2%
CD – range 0% to 11.9% with a median of 2.0%
It is rare for ODD/CD to occur outside the context of other psychiatric disorders11
- Most common is ADHD
65% of children diagnosed with ADHD also had ODD
80% of children diagnosed with ODD also had ADHD
- Anxiety disorders
45% of children diagnosed with an anxiety disorder also had ODD
- Severe depression
70% of children diagnosed with severe depression also had ODD
85% of children diagnosed with bipolar disorder also had ODD
- Language processing disorder (LPD)
55% of children diagnosed with LPD also have ODD
A risk factor is
a characteristic within the individual
or a circumstance of the
that increases the probability of a Disruptive Behavior Disorder.
Parental behaviors include inconsistent/harsh discipline, poor monitoring/ supervision, low levels of warmth/nurturance, high numbers of negative verbalizations towards the child.
As the magnitude of poverty increases, so too does the severity of aggression and conduct problems7
Protective factors reduce the likelihood of children confronted with risk factors to develop maladaptive behaviors associated with Disruptive Behavior Disorders.
Resilience, a positive adjustment occurring in children at-risk, seems to result from a combination of internal and external resources that function as protective factors.7
Interventions will be more successful if they not only reduce the risk factors, but also promote the protective factors observed in resilient children.7
- Classroom rules and procedures need to be established and clearly stated, explicitly taught, closely monitored and consistently followed.
Positive behavior support interventions that are school-wide will support all children. This foundational level is sufficient for promoting positive behavior for approximately 80% of students
Comprehensive and individualized interventions that focuses on 5% of children with significant difficulties
Early interventions for children at risk, will affect 15% of children
Retrieved from: http://cecp.air.org/interact/authoronline/april98/3.htm
1. AACAP Official Action, (2007). Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with oppositional defiant disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(1), 126-141.
2. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (4th text revision ed.). Washington DC: Author.
3. Quay, H.C., & Hogan, A.E. (1999). Handbook of disruptive behavior disorders. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenun Publishers.
4. Angold, A., Costello, E.J. & Erkanli, A. (1999). Co-morbidity. Journal of Child Psychological Psychiatry, 40: 1205 – 1212.
5. Lahey, B.B., & Loeber, R. (1994). Framework for a developmental model of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. In D.K. Routh (Ed.), Disruptive behaviors disorders in childhood. New York: Plenum.
6. Burke JD, Loeber R, & Birmaher, B. (2002) Oppositional defiant and conduct disorder: A review of the past 10 years, part II. American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry, 41:11, 1275 – 1293.
7. Bloomquist, M.L. & Schnell, S.V. (2002). Helping children with aggression and conduct problems: Best practices for intervention. New York: Guilford Press.
8. Lahey, B.B., Miller T.L., Gordon, R.A. and Riley, A.W. (1999). Developmental epidemiology of the disruptive behavior disorders. In H. C. Quay & A. E. Hogan (Eds.), Handbook of disruptive behavior disorder (pp. 23 – 48). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press.
9. Loeber, R, Burke JD, Lahey BB, Winters A, Zera M. (2000) Oppositional defiant and conduct disorder: a review of the past 10 years, part I. American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 1468 -1484.
10. Kaufman, J. M. (2005) Characteristics of emotional and behavioral disorders of children and youth. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
11. Greene, R.W., Ablon, J.S., Goring, J.C., Fazio, V., & Morse, L.R. (2004). Treatment of oppositional defiant disorder is children and adolescents. In P.M. Barrett & T.H. Ollendick (Eds.), Handbook of interventions that work with children and adolescents: Prevention and treatment (pp. 369 – 393). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
12. Pliszka, S.R. (1999). The psychobiology of oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. In H. C. Quay & A. E. Hogan (Eds.), Handbook of disruptive behavior disorder (pp. 371 – 396). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press.
13. Sanson, A. & Prior, M. (1999). Temperment and behavioral precursors to oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. In H. C. Quay & A. E. Hogan (Eds.), Handbook of disruptive behavior disorder (pp. 397 – 417). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press.
14. Loeber, R., Wung, P., Keenan, K., Giroux, B. , Stouhamer-Loeber, M. VanKammern W.B., & Maughan, B. (1993). Developmental pathways in disruptive child behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 5, 101 – 131.
15. Kupersmidt, J.B., Griesler, P.C., DeRosier, M.E., Patterson, C.J., & Davis, P.W. (1995). Childhood aggression and peer relations in context of family and neighborhood factors. Child Development, 66, 360 – 375.
16. Attar, B.K., Guerra, N.G., & Tolan, P.H. (1994) Neighborhood disadvantage, stressful life events, and adjustment in urban elementary-school children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 23, 391 - 400.
17. Walker, H.M., Colvin, G., Ramsey, E. (1995). Antisocial behavior in school: Strategies and best practices. California: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
18. Patterson, C.J., Kupersmidt, J.B., & Vaden, N.A. (1990). Income level, gender, ethnicity and household composition as predictors of children’s school based competence. Child Development, 61, 485 – 494.
19. Bolger, K.E., Patterson, C.J., Thompson, W.W., Kupersmidt, .B. (1995). Psychosocial adjustment among children experiencing persistent and intermittent family economic hardship. Child Development, 66, 1107 – 1129.
20. Hughes, J.N., Cavell, T. A., & Jackson, T. (1999). Influence of the teacher-student relationship on childhood conduct problems: A prospective study. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 28, 173 -184.
21. National Resource Center on AD/HD, (2005). What we know, 5b, AD/HD and coexisting conditions: Disruptive behavior disorders. Maryland: Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD).
22. Honig, A. & Wittmer, D.S. (1996). Helping children become more prosocial: Ideas for classrooms, families, schools, and communities. Young Children,51, (pp. 62-70).