POPULATION PYRAMIDS

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# POPULATION PYRAMIDS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

POPULATION PYRAMIDS. Objectives. WHAT is a population pyramid? HOW to read a population pyramid? Recognise SHAPES of population pyramids. IMPORTANCE of population pyramids. What is a population pyramid?.

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### POPULATION PYRAMIDS

Objectives
• WHAT is a population pyramid?
• HOW to read a population pyramid?
• Recognise SHAPESof population pyramids.
• IMPORTANCE of population pyramids.
What is a population pyramid?
• It is a diagram that gives information about the proportion of males and females in each age group.
• Also shows:

- proportion of young people (0 -14 )

- proportion of working people (15 – 59)

- proportion of elderly people (60+)

Each age-group designation is called a COHORT

What is a population pyramid?

Vertical Axis - Age Groups

Elderly dependents

Working population

Young dependents

Horizontal Axis – Percentage / number

How to read a population pyramid?
• Read the title e.g. country or city or racial group
• Comment on general shape of the pyramid
• Note the proportion of people in various age groups (cohorts)
• Note the sex ratio
• Interpret the data
Types of Population Pyramid

1. Triangular-shaped

2. Beehive-shaped Pyramid

3. Rectangular-shaped Pyramid

Shape of pyramids is controlled by

• Births (but mostly CBR!)
• deaths, &
• migrations.

Title: India, 2000

Shape: Broad Base - high birth rates

Narrow Top - small elderly pop

- high death rate

Proportion: - Large proportion of young

- high young dependency

ratio

Sex Ratio: Balance pyramid - Balance sex ratio

STOP
• Where is India on the Demographic Transition Model?
Indonesia

2000

Malaysia

2000

Beehive-shaped Pyramid

Title: Singapore, 2000

Shape: Rocket-shaped / Narrow Base

– Low Birth Rates, Slow pop growth

Proportion: Large proportion of working

population, 15-59 yr old - large

group of economically active pop

Sex Ratio: Balanced pyramid

Hong Kong

2000

Taiwan

2000

STOP
• Where are Beehive shaped pyramids on the Demographic Transition Model?
Rectangular Pyramid

Title: Netherlands, 2000

Shape: Rectangular-shaped - Zero Pop Growth

Narrow Base - Low Birth Rates

- Life-expectancy is high e.g. 80+

- Low death rates

Proportion: Bars of equal length - Balance

Proportion

Sex Ratio: Balance pyramid - Balance Sex

Ratio

UK 2000

Netherlands

2000

STOP
• Where are Rectangular Based Pyramids on the Demographic Transition Model?
Population Structure and Composition
• Population pyramids…show age and gender groups. How do MDC’s and LDC’s differ?
• 1.) Sex Ratio: # of males per 100 females. In general slightly more males born, but women outlive men
• Eur and NA 95 males: 100 females
• World wide 102 males: 100 females
Pop Structure and Composition – cont’d.
• 2.) Age Distribution
• Dependency Ratio: # of people too old or young to work, compared to # of people in productive yrs.
• % of pop under 15 = % over 65 divided by % in between 15-65 multiplied by 100
• Tells you how many dependents for every 100 workers
• Stage 2 countries: ratio is 1:1 (1 worker for every dependent) Dependents are young
• Stage 4 countries ratio is 2:1 (2 workers for every dependent) Dependents are young and old
Age Distribution – cont’d
• Graying of the pop in MDCs – more than ¼ of all govn’t expenditures in US, Canada, Japan, and W. Eur goes to Social Security, health care, and other programs for the elderly
• Baby Boomer Cohort in US (born 1946-1964)…what does this mean for you?
• Generation X = 1965-1980
Importance of Population Pyramids
• Policy Planning

~ future housing estates

~ future schools

~ future jobs

• Comparison with other countries

~ developed (US) vs developing (India)