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## PowerPoint Slideshow about 'POPULATION PYRAMIDS' - donagh

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Objectives

- WHAT is a population pyramid?
- HOW to read a population pyramid?
- Recognise SHAPESof population pyramids.
- IMPORTANCE of population pyramids.

What is a population pyramid?

- It is a diagram that gives information about the proportion of males and females in each age group.
- Also shows:

- proportion of young people (0 -14 )

- proportion of working people (15 – 59)

- proportion of elderly people (60+)

Each age-group designation is called a COHORT

What is a population pyramid?

Vertical Axis - Age Groups

Elderly dependents

Working population

Young dependents

Horizontal Axis – Percentage / number

How to read a population pyramid?

- Read the title e.g. country or city or racial group
- Comment on general shape of the pyramid
- Note the proportion of people in various age groups (cohorts)
- Note the sex ratio
- Interpret the data

Types of Population Pyramid

1. Triangular-shaped

2. Beehive-shaped Pyramid

3. Rectangular-shaped Pyramid

Shape of pyramids is controlled by

- Births (but mostly CBR!)
- deaths, &
- migrations.

Broad-based Pyramid

Title: India, 2000

Shape: Broad Base - high birth rates

Narrow Top - small elderly pop

- high death rate

Proportion: - Large proportion of young

- high young dependency

ratio

Sex Ratio: Balance pyramid - Balance sex ratio

STOP

- Where is India on the Demographic Transition Model?

Beehive-shaped Pyramid

Title: Singapore, 2000

Shape: Rocket-shaped / Narrow Base

– Low Birth Rates, Slow pop growth

Proportion: Large proportion of working

population, 15-59 yr old - large

group of economically active pop

Sex Ratio: Balanced pyramid

STOP

- Where are Beehive shaped pyramids on the Demographic Transition Model?

Rectangular Pyramid

Title: Netherlands, 2000

Shape: Rectangular-shaped - Zero Pop Growth

Narrow Base - Low Birth Rates

- Life-expectancy is high e.g. 80+

- Low death rates

Proportion: Bars of equal length - Balance

Proportion

Sex Ratio: Balance pyramid - Balance Sex

Ratio

STOP

- Where are Rectangular Based Pyramids on the Demographic Transition Model?

Population Structure and Composition

- Population pyramids…show age and gender groups. How do MDC’s and LDC’s differ?
- 1.) Sex Ratio: # of males per 100 females. In general slightly more males born, but women outlive men
- Eur and NA 95 males: 100 females
- World wide 102 males: 100 females

Pop Structure and Composition – cont’d.

- 2.) Age Distribution
- Dependency Ratio: # of people too old or young to work, compared to # of people in productive yrs.
- % of pop under 15 = % over 65 divided by % in between 15-65 multiplied by 100
- Tells you how many dependents for every 100 workers
- Stage 2 countries: ratio is 1:1 (1 worker for every dependent) Dependents are young
- Stage 4 countries ratio is 2:1 (2 workers for every dependent) Dependents are young and old

Age Distribution – cont’d

- Graying of the pop in MDCs – more than ¼ of all govn’t expenditures in US, Canada, Japan, and W. Eur goes to Social Security, health care, and other programs for the elderly
- Baby Boomer Cohort in US (born 1946-1964)…what does this mean for you?
- Generation X = 1965-1980

Importance of Population Pyramids

- Policy Planning

~ future housing estates

~ future schools

~ future jobs

- Comparison with other countries

~ developed (US) vs developing (India)

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