Land Measurement

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# Land Measurement - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Land Measurement. Metes and Bounds and Public Land Survey. Land Measurement is needed for:. Purchase/sale Agricultural crop compliance Taxes Management activities. Commonly used length units. 1 mile = 5280 feet = 80 chains 1 chain = 66 feet = 100 links 1 rod = 16.5 feet

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## Land Measurement

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Presentation Transcript

### Land Measurement

Metes and Bounds

and

Public Land Survey

Land Measurement is needed for:
• Purchase/sale
• Agricultural crop compliance
• Taxes
• Management activities
Commonly used length units
• 1 mile = 5280 feet = 80 chains
• 1 chain = 66 feet = 100 links
• 1 rod = 16.5 feet
• 4 rods = 1 chain
Commonly used area units
• 1 acre = 43,560 square feet
• 10 square chains = 1 acre
• 1 square mile = 640 acres m/l
• 1 hectare = 10,000 square meters
• 1 hectare = 2.471 acres

### All distance measurement is assumed to be horizontal

Distance measured along a slope must be adjusted to horizontal distance

Elevation change .

% Slope =

Horizontal distance

10 feet

3.5 feet

To adjust slope distance, must know % slope

% slope = 3.5/10

= 0.35 or 35%

Adjusting slope distance to horizontal distance

(Slope distance)2

Horizontal distance =

(%Slope)2

+ 1

(0.35)2

+ 1

Adjusting 1 chain slope to horizontal

(66 feet)2

Horizontal distance =

= 62.3 feet

66 feet

35% slope

69.9 feet

Metes and bounds

Original 13 colonies

Maine

Vermont

West Virginia

Kentucky

Tennessee

Texas

Public Land Survey

Remaining continental states

Hawaii

Two systems used in U.S.
Survey Systems in U.S.

Metes & Bounds

Public Land Survey

Metes and Bounds System

Mete: A direction, or more often a combination of a distance and direction

i.e. N 42o E, 16.3 chains

Bound: description of the boundary of an adjoining property

i.e. the southwest boundary of the Johnson property

Metes & Bounds Problems
• Difficult to reconstruct
• Often inaccurate
• Kentucky had 1,275,000 acres not recorded
• Virginia
• 40 counties with 554,000 ac. more than their combined area
• 55 counties with 370,000 ac. less than their combined land area

### Public Land Survey

Sometimes referred to as Rectangular Survey

Public Land Survey
• Started in Ohio in 1785
• Provides a very uniform method for land description
• Easy to re-establish
• Less likelihood of errors than with Metes and Bounds

Burt

Solar

Compass

Early Surveyors’ Equipment

Each PLS survey starts from a known hub
• Hubs were usually established at the confluence of two rivers
• Locations were determined accurately by celestial observation

The Stage is Set in Iowa

On December 18, 1832, Jenifer T. Sprigg crossed the Mississippi into Iowa near what is now Fort Madison and set a marker at the common corner of sections 1, 12, 6, and 7 in Tier 67 North Ranges 4 and 5 West.

5th Principal Meriaian

The Beginning of PLS in Iowa

Lyon completes 5th PM in Iowa, Dec. 1837

Burt ties in across river, Nov. 20, 1836

Burt sets first point on 5th PM in Iowa

W. A. Burt starts survey Oct. 25, 1836

Iowa Public Land Survey Years

1856-1858

1853-1855

1847-1849

1839-1841

1850-1852

1844-1846

1842-1843

5th PM

Standard

Parallels

Guide

Meridians

Base Line

First rectangle is 24 mi by 24 mi

24 miles

24 miles

24 miles

24 miles

5th PM

24 miles

T4N

Township

T3N

24 miles

6 mi

T2N

6 mi

T1N

Base Line

R1E

R2E

R3E

R4E

24 x 24 mile rectangles are subdivided

24 miles

5th PM

T4N

24 miles

T3N

6 mi

6 mi

T2N

Base Line

T1N

R4E

R3E

R1E

R2E

Beginning of Legal Description

T3N, R3E, 5PM

6

5

4

3

2

1

7

8

9

10

11

12

Section

T3N

1 mi.

36

1 mi.

R3E

Each Township is divided

6

5

4

3

2

1

12

7

8

9

10

11

T3N

36

1 mi.

1 mi.

R3E

Sec 11,

T3N, R3E, 5PM

### Section Corners were marked during survey

Gives rise to an interesting possible hobby

NE 1/4

NW 1/4

1 mile

SW 1/4

SE 1/4

1 mile

Sections can be subdivided

SE 1/4

Contains 160 Acres

NE 1/4

NW 1/4

Sec 11,

T3N, R3E, 5PM

1 mile

SW 1/4

SE 1/4

1 mile

SE 1/4,

1 mile

NW 1/4

NE 1/4

SW 1/4

SE 1/4

1 mile

Further subdivision

NW 1/4

NE 1/4

NW 1/4

SW 1/4

Contains 40 acres

NW 1/4

NE 1/4

SE 1/4,

Sec 11,

T3N, R3E, 5PM

1 mile

NW 1/4

NE 1/4

SW 1/4

SW 1/4

SE 1/4

1 mile

NW 1/4,

1 mile

1 mile

Further subdivision

NW 1/4

NE 1/4

NE 1/4

NW 1/4

SW 1/4

Contains 10 acres

SW 1/4

SE 1/4

NW 1/4

NE 1/4

NW 1/4,

SE 1/4,

Sec 11,

T3N, R3E, 5PM

1 mile

NE 1/4

SW 1/4

SW 1/4

SE 1/4

1 mile

NW 1/4,

1 mile

1 mile

Further subdivision

NW 1/4

NE 1/4

NE 1/4

W 1/2

SW 1/4

Contains 5 acres

SW 1/4

SE 1/4

NW 1/4

NE 1/4

NW 1/4,

NW 1/4,

SE 1/4,

T3N, R3E, 5PM

Sec 11,

1 mile

5 Ac

10 Ac

40 Ac

160 Ac

640 AC

NE 1/4

SW 1/4

SW 1/4

SE 1/4

1 mile