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Why Do Migrants Face Obstacles?. Key Issue #3. OLD/NEW. OLD obstacles: Long, and expensive passage over land or by sea Cramped and unsanitary conditions endured by 19 th century immigrants NEW obstacles: Gaining permission to a new country

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Why Do Migrants Face Obstacles?

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old new
  • OLD obstacles:
    • Long, and expensive passage over land or by sea
    • Cramped and unsanitary conditions endured by 19th century immigrants
  • NEW obstacles:
    • Gaining permission to a new country
    • Face hostile attitudes of citizens once they have entered the new country
quota act of 1921 national origins act of 1924
Quota Act of 1921/National Origins Act of 1924
  • Quota Act of 1921/National Origins Act of 1924:
    • Established maximum limits on the number of people who could immigrate to the United States during a 1 year period
    • For each country that had native-born persons already living in the United States, 2 % of their number (1910 census) could immigrate each year
    • Limited Eastern Hemisphere to 150,000 per year, virtually all of whom had to be from Europe
    • Continued until 1960s without modifications
immigration of 1965
Immigration of 1965
  • Immigration Act of 1965
    • Eliminated quotas for individual countries and placed quotas on hemispheres
    • 170,000 from Eastern Hemisphere, 120,000 from Western Hemisphere
  • 1978 Numbers:
    • hemisphere quota replaced by global quota of 290,000, including a maximum of 20,000 per country
    • Currently 620,000 global quota, no more than 7% from one country
current laws
Current Laws
  • Current Laws:
    • Permits 480,000 family-sponsored immigrants
    • 140,000 employment-related immigrants
    • ¾ of the immigrants admitted to reunify families, primarily spouses or unmarried children of people already living in the United States
    • Skilled workers and expectionally talented professionals receive most of the remaining 1.4 of the visas
    • Others admitted by lottery under a diversity category to people from countries that historically sent few people
current of laws
Current of Laws
  • Does not apply to refugees
  • Spouses, children, and parents of U.S. citizens are admitted without limit
  • Many well-educated Asians enter the U.S. under the skilled worker preference
    • Then bring in family under the family reunification act
brain drain
Brain Drain
  • Brain Drain: large-scale emigration by talented people
    • Well-educated young people leave their native country for better job and teaching opportunities in North America and Europe
temporary migration for work
Temporary Migration For Work
  • Guest Workers: citizens of poor countries who obtain jobs in Western Europe and the Middle East
    • Take low status and low skilled jobs
    • Provide essential services such as driving buses, collecting garbage repairing streets and washing dishes
    • Send money back home; stimulate home economy
time contract workers
Time-Contract Workers
  • Time-Contract Workers: recruited for fixed periods of time to work in mines or on plantations, many settled in their new country
migrant vs refugee
Migrant vs Refugee
  • Migrant vs Refugee
    • United States, Canada and Western Europe treat refugees and migrants very differently
    • Migrants: not admitted unless they possess special skills or have a close relative already there’
    • Refugees: receive special treatment
  • Cuba:
    • Political refugees since 1959 revolution that brought Communist government of Fidel Castro to power
    • Settled in Florida, become prominent in politics and economy
    • 1980: Castro allowed political prisoners, criminals and mental patients to leave Cuba; 125,000 left for United States for political asylum
    • Processed in Key West and transferred to camps
    • Sponsors were expected to provide food and shelter
    • Many lived in Orange Bowl until start of football season and then transferred to army tents under I-95
  • Haiti:
    • Sailed to U.S. to flee “PAPA DOC and BABY DOC’s” dictatorships
    • U.S. drew lines differently, Castro was an ally of Soviet Union
    • U.S. officials claimed Haitians migrated for economic advancement, not political refugee
    • Haitians sue government and govt admits Haitians
  • Vietnam:
    • Fled South Vietnam after the North captures Saigon
    • Some were able to leave on U.S. helicopters to escape capture form the North
    • Others left on boats and drifted to China and Laos
    • Some drifted out to sea to find U.S. Naval ships
      • Once aboard ships could claim refugee status for the United States
    • Another surge left in the 1980s and headed for Maylaysia, Hong Kong and Thailand
u s attitudes toward immigrants
U.S. Attitudes toward Immigrants
  • Americans always regarded new arrivals with suspicion but tempered their dislike during the 19th century, helped build and expand the frontier of the United States
  • Opposition increased when the majority of immigrants ceased to come from Northern and Western Europe
    • German and Irish faced harsh prejudice from so-called “Native Americans”
    • Italians , Russians, Poles and other Southern and Eastern Europeans who came in the 1900s faced much more hostility
u s attitudes toward immigrants1
U.S. Attitudes toward Immigrants
  • 1911 study reflected these ideas towards immigrants:
    • Racially inferior
    • “inclined toward to violent crime”
    • Resisted assimilation
    • “drove old-stock citizens out of some lines of work”
u s attitudes toward immigrants2
U.S. Attitudes toward Immigrants
  • More Recent:
    • California citizens and other states have voted to deny undocumented immigrants to most public services, schools, day-care centers, and health care services
    • Difficult to enforce: reflects the unwillingness on the part of many Americans to help out needy immigrants
guest work in europe
Guest Work in Europe
  • Guest worker in Europe:
    • Poor social conditions
    • Young man who arrives in the city alone
    • Little money for food, housing, or entertainment
    • Primary job is to send as much money as possible
    • Lead a lonely life
    • Unfamiliar language and cultural activities
    • Spend free time at local railway stations
    • Disliked by many Western Europeans and oppose government programs to improve their living conditions
    • Political parties are gaining support that support restrictions on immigrants in may European countries
guest worker in middle east
Guest Worker in Middle East
  • Guest Worker In Middle East:
    • Fear that increasing number will spark political unrest and abandonment of traditional Islamic customs
    • Force migrants to return home if they wish to marry and prevent them from returning with wives and children
anti immigrants
  • Anti-immigrants Politicians:
    • “if all the immigrants were thrown out of the country, then the unemployment rate would drop, and if all the immigrants were cut off from public programs , then taxes would drop”
    • Little scientific basis and have racist overtones