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Forest Management. Diseases and Pests that effect a good harvest stand. Original Power Point Created by Melinda Goplin Modified by Georgia Agricultural Education Curriculum Office June 2002. Definition disorder that is caused by something specific with consistant symptoms.

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forest management

Forest Management

Diseases and Pests

that effect a good harvest stand

Original Power Point Created by Melinda Goplin

Modified by Georgia Agricultural Education Curriculum Office

June 2002

what is a disease

disorder that is caused by something specific with consistant symptoms.

Types of Diseases…


nonliving agent cause


living agent causes

fungus, bacteria, parasite, virus, nematodes

What is a Disease?
  • Most destructive in forests
  • Threadlike plants that do not make their own food.
  • Parasitic- when taking food from a living tree
  • Saprophytic- when taking food from dead trees to aid in humus production.
wood rots

Fungus decay in trees

Break down cellulose and lignin in cell walls

Very harmful because they are hard to detect from the outside of a living tree.

2 Types

White Rot- break down of cellulose and lignin in the cell walls.

Brown Rot- only break down cellulose

70% of all timber lost

Wood Rots
biotic disease continued

Conk- specialized growth on outside containing fungal spores spread when opened.

Look like mushrooms growing on the sides of the trunk


Prevent scaring of trees

Rotate harvest age

Harvest more frequently in mixed age forests

Using these methods doesn’t give fungus the chance to grow.

Biotic Disease continued...

fungus entering through wounds in the bark

cause lesions that produce callus tissue and damage the woody tissue of the tree, making it less valuable


weak trees

decay for no apparent reason

lesions may be present


Eliminate infected trees from the stand


avoid scaring trees

discard infected trees



White Pine Blister

fungus disease that contain different spores; effects trees, currents, and gooseberries.

White Pine and Oak is very susceptible


fungal disease that affects Southern Pine and some Oak.

rust continued

spotted red or brown discoloration of stems and/or leaves

may infest in cones, needles, and stems of conifers

infest only leaves of certain hardwoods


fungicidal treatments

plant resistant varieties

rid host plants

** All fungi that causes rust spends its live on two different unrelated host plants

Rust continued...

fungus invades and grows in the vessles of the xylem tissue.

Why is this harmful?

EX) Dutch Elm Disease is a form of wilt.


Eliminate insects as they spread disease

discard infected trees

be award of root graft

tree roots grow together underground


** Notice that the oak trees affected by wilt will drop their leaves in the middle of summer.

All three trees in picture show signs of wilt


direct sunlight for extended amount of time

freezing temps followed by a few days of hot sun in late winter/early spring


bark damage

color change



weather related



  • Types of Damage
    • Bark Borers
    • Defoliators
    • Root Feeders
    • Terminal Feeders
    • Sucking Insects


bark borers
Bark Borers
  • Bore tunnels into bark and woody parts
  • Female lays eggs in tunnels
  • Larvae feed on xylem and phloem tissues
  • Why is this a big deal?
  • Insects feed off leaves and needles
  • Few insects can completely remove foliage from tree in a single season
  • How does this affect the tree?
  • Birch, Maple (both black and sugar)
root feeders
Root Feeders
  • Destroy the rooting tissue when tender and prevent growth.
  • Insects include: wireworms, grubs, weevil
  • Why is this a concern?
terminal feeders
Terminal Feeders
  • Insects that feed on terminal leaders
    • terminal leaders determine which way a branch will grow
  • Cause deformities in branches and quality of trunk is reduced.
  • Insects include: Pine moth and weevil
sucking insects
Sucking Insects
  • Insects equipped with mouthparts that imbed into the leaves and suck out all the chlorophyll and produce honeydew.
  • Why is this bad??
  • Insects include: Aphids, mites, leafhoppers, lice, scales, cicadas, spittlebugs
  • Affects all trees


air pollution
Air Pollution
  • Abiotic disease caused by Sulfur and Nitrogen compounds given off by exhaust fumes and factories
  • Damage occurs in leaves and effects photosynthesis
how can we control these problems
How can we control these problems?
  • Mechanical/Biological Control
    • remove dead, decayed trees
    • invite birds into territory
    • introduced predator insects ex)ladybug, ants
  • Chemical Control
    • insecticides, fungicides
    • must be careful when applying
integrated pest management
Integrated Pest Management
  • IPM makes use of all methods in a safe way
  • depends on the use of natural insects first then adds other defense mechanisms
  • Encourages genetically engineered resistant crops to be planted