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Forest Management and Fragmentation in Tropical Forest. Dr Shamsudin Ibrahim Forest Research Institute Malaysia, 52109, Kepong, Selangor. Outline of presentation. Forest management practices in Malaysia Common issues related to logging of natural forest

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forest management and fragmentation in tropical forest

Forest Management and Fragmentation in Tropical Forest

Dr Shamsudin Ibrahim

Forest Research Institute Malaysia, 52109, Kepong, Selangor

outline of presentation
Outline of presentation
  • Forest managementpractices in Malaysia
  • Common issues related to logging of natural forest
  • Forest management & Fragmentation. Is the present forest management is a causal factor of fragmentation of tropical forest ecosystem ???
  • What will be the impact of logging at a smaller unit area with regards to the distribution pattern of tree species in the forest
forest management practices in malaysia
Forest management practices in Malaysia
  • The focus will be in Peninsular Malaysia
  • History of the forest management system
  • The extent of the resource
  • Logging practices
  • Silvicultural treatments after logging
history of forest management
History of forest management
  • Malayan Uniform Syatem (MUS), formulated in 1949
  • What is MUS
  • “removal of the mature crops in one single felling of all trees down to 45 cm diameter at breast height (dbh) for all species, followed by releasing selected natural regeneration mainly the light demanding of medium and light hardwood species”
what is mus con t
What is MUS ………….(con’t)
  • “ Felling operation is normally followed by climber cutting and poison-girdling of defective relics and non-commercial species down to 15 cm dbh”
  • “ 5-7 years after felling a linear strip sampling is carried out to determine the present and status of regeneration”
  • “ MUS is a system of converting a rich, multi-species & multi-aged forest to even-aged forest of commercial species “
the success of mus depends on eight critical factors
The success of MUS depends on eight critical factors:
  • Abundant and evenly distributed seed supply of economic species;
  • Viability of seed;
  • Conditions that are favourable for seed germination;
  • Conditions that are favourable for seedling growth;
  • Complete removal of canopy through poison-girdling down to 15 cm dbh;
  • Removal of climber;
  • Adequate canopy removal to allow maximum growth of seedlings but prevent re-growth of climbers and other competing weeds; and
  • Regular assessment on the status of regeneration on the ground
the success of mus cont
The success of MUS………. (cont)
  • The system was found to be successfully applied in lowland dipterocarp forest but not in hill dipterocarp forest;
  • In late 1970s, Peninsula Malaysia experienced massive land development program for food and other agricultural crops. The program aimed primarily to upgrade social-economic status of the country through well planned & integrated land development schemes;
  • As a result, most of the rich lowland forest was cleared and developed for various land development schemes; and
  • What is left is only hill dipterocarp forest which is not suitable for other land uses, except to be kept under forest cover.
the application of mus in hill forest
The application of MUS in hill forest
  • The application failed because of the following reasons;
    • Difficult terrain;
    • Eneven stocking;
    • Lack of natural regeneration on the forest floor before logging;
    • Irregularity in flowering and fruiting of commercial tree species;
    • Heavy seedling mortality on slope during harvesting;
    • High risk of erosion following harvesting;
    • High incidence of Eugeissona triste due to canopy opening after logging; and
    • Not possible to delay harvesting due to inadequate regeneration because of high demand for timber
we are realized that in hill forest
We are realized that in hill forest….
  • Mixed forest crop offers the best cover for soil and water protection;
  • Wood based industries have the capacity to utilise a wider spectrum of timber species instead of just concentrating only on a few commercial timber species; and
  • The issue of biodiversity has to be incorporated into policies and strategies of hill forest management.
slide10

How old it would be ?????

A typical hill forest in Peninsular Malaysia. A gigantic Shorea curtisii in association with E. triste

we are also realized that in hill forest cont
We are also realized that in hill forest………..(cont)
  • Managing on a monocyclic approach may not be financially and economically attractive; and
  • Since the resource base has been reduced, the output can be increased through a shortened rotation period.
selective management system sms
Selective Management System (SMS)
  • The system introduced in 1978 to allow for flexible timber harvesting regimes in hill dipterocarp forest;
  • Discouraged poison-girdling of uncommercial timber species. The system promotes biodiversity conservation.
sms was evolved to meet the following requirements
SMS was evolved to meet the following requirements
  • Flexibility to manage the highly variable forest conditions;
  • Rationally based on the inherent characteristics of the forest; and
  • Allow for the optimization of forest management goals through:
    • An economic cut;
    • Sustainability of the forest; and
    • Minimum cost of forest development
under sms
Under SMS……….
  • Felling regimes are based on inventory data to ensure:
    • An economic cut;
    • Sustainability of the forest; and
    • Minimum cost of forest development
  • Cutting cycle is very much shortened (30 years compared to 55 years for MUS)
  • Advance growth is a bonus under MUS but become the main crop under SMS. Therefore if advance growth is inadequate under SMS, planting program will be undertaken and the rotation will be lengthened.
the success of sms depends on the following assumptions
The success of SMS depends on the following assumptions.
  • Diameter growth ranges between 0.75 to 1.0 cm year-1;
  • Gross volume growth 3m3 ha-1 year-1
  • Annual mortality 0.9%
  • Annual ingrowth 0.6%
forest management practices in malaysia1
Forest management practices in Malaysia
  • The focus will be in Peninsular Malaysia
  • History of the forest management system
  • The extent of the resource
  • Logging practices
  • Silvicultural treatments after logging
malaysia forest resources
Malaysia – Forest Resources

At the end of 2004

  • Total forest area – 19.54 million ha (59.5%)
    • Peninsular - 5.89 million ha
    • Sabah - 4.41 million ha
    • Sarawak - 9.24 million ha
slide18

Malaysia – Forest Resources

Distribution and Extent of Major

Forests Types in Malaysia

Dipterocarp Forest

17.13 mil. ha (87.6%)

Peat Swamp Forest

1.54 mil. ha (7.2%)

Mangrove Forest

0.60 mil. ha (2.9%)

Plantation Forest

0.27mil. ha (1.2%)

slide19

Permanent Reserved

Forest

14.45 mil. ha.

Protection 3.49 mil. ha

Production

10.96 mil. ha

Malaysia – Forest Resources

slide20

Protection Forest

Production

Forest

  • to ensure favourable climatic and physical conditions of the country
  • safeguarding of water resources
  • soil fertility
  • environmental quality
  • conservation of biological diversity
  • minimization of damage by floods and erosion
  • to ensure the supply in perpetuity at reasonable levels of all forms of forest produce which can be economically produce within the country and are required for agricultural, domestic, industrial purposes and export
forest management practices in malaysia2
Forest management practices in Malaysia
  • The focus will be in Peninsular Malaysia
  • History of the forest management system
  • The extent of the resource
  • Logging practices
  • Silvicultural treatments after logging
logging practices cont
Logging practices……….(cont)
  • Dipterocarp forest
  • Peat swamp forest
  • mangroves
logging practices cont1
Logging practices……. (cont)
  • Logging road built within the concession area
  • Does it causes fragmentation
logging practices cont2
Logging practices ……. (cont)
  • A typical temporary log landing site in the forest
  • Does it causes fragmentation
logging practices cont3
Logging practices…… (cont)
  • A typical felling and extraction damage during harvesting
  • Does it causes fragmentation
logging practices cont4
Logging practices……. (cont)

Forest recovery after 5 years of logging

logging practices in peat swamp forest1
Logging practices in peat swamp forest

Logging roads are constructed in peat swamp forest

forest fire in peat swamp forest
Forest fire in peat swamp forest

Forest fire can be extensive and may create fragmentation to forest ecosystem

forest fire may lead to changing landscape in peat swamp forest
Forest fire may lead to changing landscape in peat swamp forest
  • Changing landscape acts as a form of fragmentation in peat swamp forest
  • The recovery process is extremely very slow
  • Permanent displacement of flora and fauna is possible
logging in mangroves
Logging in mangroves

A small strip of not more than 4 ha is being clear-felled during harvesting

recovery process after harvesting in mangroves
Recovery process after harvesting in mangroves
  • This is done through enrichment planting programs carried out immediately after harvesting
mangroves recovered after harvesting
Mangroves recovered after harvesting
  • A visit to an area where mangrove was partially recovered after harvesting
  • Fragmentation of the ecosystem is minimal
logging practices cont5
Logging practices…….. (cont)
  • A question that need to be answered:
  • “Does logging practices lead to forest fragmentation ?????”. I would like this to be discussed and elaborated by the workshop participants and find a reasonable explanation to the question posed.
forest management practices in malaysia3
Forest management practices in Malaysia
  • The focus will be in Peninsular Malaysia
  • History of the forest management system
  • The extent of the resource
  • Logging practices
  • Silvicultural treatments after logging
silvicultural treatments after logging
Silvicultural treatments after logging.
  • Treatments will be prescribed based on post-felling inventory. The inventory should be done at least two years after harvesting, and the next inventory ten years after treatments are given.
  • It is important to ensure that the crop of the next cut contain adequate stocking of dipterocarp.
outline of presentation1
Outline of presentation
  • Forest managementpractices in Malaysia
  • Common issues related to logging of natural forest
  • Forest management & Fragmentation. Is the present forest management is a causal factor of fragmentation of forest ecosystem ???
  • What will be the impact of logging at a smaller unit area with regards to the distribution pattern of tree species in the forest
impacts of logging at a smaller unit level
Impacts of logging at a smaller unit level
  • Distribution patterns of tree species will be disrupted. Some species, like Shorea curtisii, Shorea platyclados, and Gonystylus bancanus have clumping of individuals within the population;
  • After logging, the individuals are far apart. Is the distance between individuals critical to reproductive biology of tree species in tropical forest. Can the pollinator travel over a longer distance.
thank you

Dr Shamsudin Ibrahim

Forest Research Institute Malaysia, 52109, Kepong

Selangor, Malaysia

THANK YOU