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Chapter 4 First Age of Empires
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  1. Chapter 4 First Age of Empires 1570 BC – 200 BC

  2. I. The Egyptians and Nubians • A. Nomadic Invaders Rule Egypt • Egypt falls to invaders because of week leadership from Pharohs • Hyksos take over and ruled Egypt from 1640 to 1570 BC • Hyksos encourage Hebrews to Settle in Egypt Around 1650 BC

  3. I. The Egyptians and Nubians (cont.) • 1. Expulsion and Slavery • By 1600 BC, the Egyptians Under Queen Ahhotep and Pharaoh Kamos • They Drove the Hyksos out • Enslaved the Hebrews

  4. B. The New Kingdom in Egypt • After overthrowing the Hyksos the new pharaohs sought to strengthen Egypt by building an empire. • empire: control of several peoples or states under one ruler • 1. Hatshepsut's Prosperous Rule • She began ruling in 1472 BC • Encouraged trade instead of war

  5. B. The New Kingdom cont. • 2. Thutmose the Empire Builder • Stepson of Hatshepsut, who may have murdered Hatshepsut • Thutmose III armies took Syria and northern part of the Euphrates • Pushed into Nubia • Conquered The Nubia Empire • Grow rich, no longer isolated

  6. B. The New Kingdom cont. • 3. The Egyptians and the Hittites • Conflict erupted over Syria and Palestine • Armies clashed at Kadesh in 1285 BC • Ramses II and the Kadesh king signed a treaty • The two empires became allies

  7. B. The New Kingdom cont. • 4. An Age of Builders • Majority of Tombs were built during this time • Hidden tombs in desert cliffs • Valley of the Kings near Thebes • Ramses commissioned monumental statues and temples • Ramses’ tomb was found in 1995 with 50 of his 52 sons buried with him

  8. C. The Empire Declines • 1. Invasions by Land and Sea • 1208 BC, Mediterranean sea raiders weakened the area • Also faced Palestinian revolts and Libyan invaders • 2. Egypt’s Empire Fades • It never recovered its previous power or prestige • Libyans ruled from 950 to 730 BC • Adopted Egyptian culture • The Nubians later do the same thing

  9. D. The Kushites Conquer the Nile • Egypt dominated Nubia and Kush for centuries • The region emerged during the Hyksos reign • 1. The People of Nubia • People overcame the cataracts to trade on the Nile • Linked the Mediterranean world to Africa • 2. The Interaction of Nubia and Egypt • Forced rule on Nubia during the New Kingdom • Nubian princes lived in Egypt and adopted their culture • Regained independence around 1200 BC

  10. D. The Kushites cont. • 3. Piankhi Captures the Egyptian Throne • 751 BC, Piankhi overthrew the Libyan pharaoh • United the entire Nile River valley • Started the 25th dynasty of Egypt • Erected a monument in Kush to celebrate • The Assyrians conquered Egypt in 671 BC, ending the dynasty

  11. E. The Golden Age of Meroë • The Kushite royal family moved to Meroë • 1. The Wealth of Kush • Traded with Africa, India, and Arabia • Plentiful rainfall and iron supplies • 2. The Decline of Meroë • Declined around 250 to 150 BC • Another city, Aksum, dominated their trade

  12. II. The Assyrians Assyria- a southwest Asian Kingdom that controlled a large empire from about 850 to 612 B.C.

  13. II. The Assyrians • A. A Mighty Military Machine • Assyrians came from The northern part of Mesopotamia. • Land was flat and easy to invade • This is how The Assyrians Developed their warlike Attitude because they were Defeated so many times. • Most feared and hated empire in the region • Foot soldiers, chariots, iron weapons, cavalry

  14. II. The Assyrians • Treated People poorly • Burned cities, tortured and killed captives, heavy taxes • Deported entire populations • One king, Sennacherib, claimed to destroy 89 cities and 820 villages (including Babylon) • 1. Military Organization and Conquest • Nineveh the capital • Start conquering 900 BC • Well equipped with iron weapons • Tiglath-pileser and Ashurbanipal led campaigns

  15. The Assyrians Cont. • B. The Empire Expands • Conquered Syria, Palestine, Babylonia, Anatolia, and Egypt • 1. Assyrian Rule • Peaked around 650 BC • The Assyrian system of having local governors report to a central authority became the fundamental model of government management

  16. The Assyrians Cont. • Assyrians Crushed revolts quickly • Left markers so others wouldn’t revolt • Destroyed cities and exiled the people in places who refused to pay tribute • Burned cities, hung skin on walls, piled human skulls • Never found a niche for making money, only knew conquering and pillaging • Nineveh did have a huge library

  17. C. The Empire Crumbles • A universal hatred of Assyria led to an alliance conquering Nineveh in 612 BC • Assyrians spread their empire out too thing • The army of Medes, Chaldeans, and others burned and leveled the city • 2. Rebirth of Babylon Under the Chaldeans • Started a revival for Babylon • Built into a monumental city • Reached its height under King Nebuchadnezzar II (605-562) • Extended the empire • Deported the Jews • Built the Hanging Gardens • Made advances in astronomy and maps

  18. Main Idea: By Governing with Tolerance and wisdom, the Persians established a well-ordered empire that lasted for 200 years. Key Terms: Cyrus Satrap Cambyses Royal Road Darius Zoroaster The Persian Empire The Medes, along with the Chaldeans, helped to overthrow the Assyrian Empire in 612 B.C. The Medes marched to Nineveh from their homeland in the area of present-day northern Iran, while the Medes’ close neighbor to the south, Persia, began to expand its horizons and territorial ambitions

  19. III. The Persians • A. The Rise of Persia • Modern day Iran • 1. Cyrus Founds an Empire • Conquered the Medes in the 540s • Swept down from the mountains of Iran in 539 BC • Cyrus II conquered Babylon

  20. The Persians Cont. (Cyrus) • Allowed the Jews to return to their homeland in 538 BC • Eventually took over Mesopotamia, Syria, Canaan, Phoenicia, Lydia, and Greek city-states of Asia Minor (Ionia) • Tolerant to others cultures • Allowed to retain their own language, religions, and customs • Cyrus was Killed in battle on the eastern border

  21. B. Persian Rule • 1. Cambyses and Darius • Sons of Cyrus • Conquered Egypt in 525 BC • Ruled harshly, unlike his father • Died eight years later, revolts erupted • Darius seized the throne with the help of the Ten Thousand Immortals in 522 BC • Spent the next three years putting down revolts • Then began conquering Afghanistan • Empire went from the Nile to the Indus River, 3,000 miles with 50 million people

  22. B. Persian Rule cont. • 2. Provinces and Satraps • Divided it into provinces or satraps (Small divisions of area that had a Local Governor) • Military officials and tax collectors helped the king • Inspectors were the “eyes and ears” of the king • People only had to pay a tribute • They would crush a rebellion quickly though • Brought artisans from the various regions to build Persepolis • Encouraged trade: used coins • The Royal Road stretched 1,677 miles and had stops every 14 miles with food, water, and horses • Messengers could travel it in seven days

  23. C. The Persian Legacy • 1. Zoroaster’s Teachings • Had a strict moral code • Stressed bravery and honesty • Before 500s BC, they worshipped many gods • 570 BC, Zoroaster reformed the religion • Talked about a struggle between good and evil • Ahura Mazda: good, Ahriman: Bad • Humans had to choose • Teachings linked to glorifying the kings • Lots of pomp and pageantry • Zoroaster influenced Judaism, Christianity, and Islam: heaven, hell, Last Judgment • 2. Political Order • Tolerance and good govt. brought order to the region