Class 27: Climate. POLS 363 International Law P. Brian Fisher Spring 2011. R2P. General Rules of NI (UNC Art 2) and Caselaw (Corfu, Nicaragua) Definition of R2P (and how it fits into UNC Art 2) Atrocity Crimes: Genocide, CAH, War Crime, EC Each Atrocity Crime has its own “elements”
P. Brian Fisher
Four Institutional Results
are at the center of concerns for SD”—no rt to clean environ
“Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level”
Fingerprint-modeling of global surface temperature change (Adapted from Meehl et al. 2004). (A) Model results with all forcings included. The combined forcings provided the best match to the fingerprint of climate change in the observed record. (B) Natural forcings alone explained much of the temperature change in the first half of the century. (C) Man-made forcings strongly dominated the temperature change after 1975.
Note: The 20th C warming trend at the earth’s surface progressed in a distinct pattern, with a large warming during 1910-1940, moderate cooling during 1940-1975, and a large warming from 1975 to today.
“The ultimate objective of this Convention and any related legal instruments that the Conference of the Parties may adopt is to achieve, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Such a level should be achieved within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.”
Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, USA
1. Avoids restrictions on growth because pollution is strongly linked to industrial growth.
2. It means that they cannot sell emissions credits to industrialized nations to permit those nations to over-pollute.
3. They get money and technologies from the developed countries in Annex II.