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Circulatory System in Animals. Feeding Energy Needs. Why do we need a circulatory system? supplies in fuel (sugars) digestive system oxygen respiratory system waste out CO 2 respiratory system need to pick up & deliver the supplies & wastes around the body circulatory system.

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Presentation Transcript
feeding energy needs
Feeding Energy Needs
  • Why do we need a circulatory system?
    • supplies in
      • fuel (sugars)
        • digestive system
      • oxygen
        • respiratory system
    • waste out
      • CO2
        • respiratory system
    • need to pick up & deliver the supplies & wastes around the body
      • circulatory system
simple organisms
Simple organisms

When your body is only 2-cell layers thick, you can get supplies in and waste out just through diffusion

  • all cells within easy reach of fluid

Jellyfish

Hydra

complex organisms
Complex organisms
  • Circulatory system
    • made up of 3 parts
      • organ
        • heart
      • tissues & cells
        • blood vessels
          • arteries
          • veins
          • capillaries
        • blood
          • red blood cells
          • plasma
circulatory systems
Circulatory systems
  • All animals have:
    • muscular pump = heart
    • tubes = blood vessels
    • circulatory fluid = “blood”

open

closed

hemolymph

blood

vertebrate heart
Vertebrate Heart
  • 4-Chambered heart
    • atria (atrium)
      • thin wall
      • collection chamber
      • receive blood
    • ventricles
      • thick wall pump
      • pump blood out

leftatrium

rightatrium

rightventricle

leftventricle

evolution of circulatory system
Evolution of circulatory system

Not everyone has a 4-chambered heart

fish

amphibian

reptiles

birds & mammals

2 chamber

3 chamber

3 chamber

4 chamber

V

A

A

A

A

A

A

A

V

V

V

V

V

lub dub lub dub
Lub-dub, lub-dub
  • 4 valves in the heart
    • flaps of connective tissue
    • prevent backflow
  • Heart sounds
    • closing of valves
    • “Lub”
      • force blood against closed AV valves
    • “Dub”
      • force of blood against semilunar valves
  • Heart murmur
    • leaking valve causes hissing sound
    • blood squirts backward through valve

SL

AV

AV

electrical signals
Electrical signals
  • heart pumping controlled by electrical impulses
  • signal also transmitted to skin = EKG

stimulates ventricles to contract from bottom to top, driving blood into arteries

allows atria to empty completely before ventricles contract

cardiac cycle
Cardiac Cycle

ventriclesfill

How is this reflected in blood pressure measurements?

systolic

________

diastolic

chambers fill

pump(peak pressure)

_________________

fill(minimum pressure)

110

________

80

ventriclespump

measurement of blood pressure
Measurement of blood pressure

if systolic > 150

or

if diastolic > 90

hypertension =(high blood pressure)

blood vessels
Blood vessels

arteries

veins

artery

arterioles

venules

arterioles

capillaries

venules

veins

arteries built for their job
Arteries: Built for their job
  • Arteries
    • blood flows away from heart
    • thicker walls
      • provide strength for high pressure pumping of blood
    • elastic & stretchable
      • maintains blood pressure even when heart relaxes
major arteries
Major arteries

aorta

carotid= to head

to brain & left arm

to right arm

to body

pulmonaryartery

pulmonaryartery=to lungs

coronary arteries

veins built for their job
Veins: Built for their job

Blood flows

toward heart

  • Veins
    • blood returns back to heart
    • thinner-walled
      • blood travels back to heart at low speed & pressure
      • why low pressure?
        • far from heart
      • blood flows because muscles contract when we move
        • squeeze blood through veins
    • valves in large veins
      • in larger veins one-way valves allow blood to flow only toward heart

Openvalve

Closed valve

major veins
Major Veins

superiorvena cava= from upper body

pulmonaryvein= from lung

pulmonaryvein = from lung

inferiorvena cava= from lower body

structure function relationship
Structure-function relationship
  • Capillaries
    • very thin walls
    • allows diffusion of materials across capillary
      • O2, CO2, H2O, food, waste

body cell

waste

CO2

O2

food

circulation of blood
Circulation of Blood

Circulationto lungs

  • 2 part system
    • Circulation to lungs
      • blood gets O2 from lungs
      • drops off CO2 to lungs
      • brings O2-rich blood from lungs to heart
    • Circulation to body
      • pumps O2-rich blood to body
      • picks up nutrients from digestive system
      • collects CO2 & cell wastes

lungs

heart

body

Circulationto body

vertebrate circulatory system
Vertebrate circulatory system
  • 2 part system

lungs

arteryto lungs

vein from lungsto heart

heart

vein from bodyto heart

artery

to body

body

stops along the way
Stops along the way…
  • Lungs
    • pick up O2 / clean out CO2
  • Small Intestines
    • pick up nutrients from digested food
  • Large Intestines
    • pick up water from digested food
  • Liver
    • clean out worn out blood cells
more stops along the way
More stops along the way…
  • Kidneys
    • filters out wastes (urea)
    • extra salts, sugars & water
  • Bone
    • picks up new red blood cells
  • Spleen
    • picks up new white blood cells
circulatory system homeostasis

ATP

CO2

O2

Circulatory System & Homeostasis
  • Homeostasis
    • keeping the internal environment of the body balanced
    • need to balance food & O2 in
    • need to balance energy (ATP) production
    • need to balance CO2 & waste out
  • Exercise
    • heart beat faster
      • need more ATP
      • bring in more O2 & food; remove more CO2 & waste out
  • Disease
    • poor lung or heart function = heart beat faster
      • need to work harder to bring in O2 & food & remove wastes

food

waste

blood blood cells
Blood & blood cells
  • Blood is a tissue of fluid & cells
    • plasma
      • liquid part of blood
      • dissolved salts, sugars, proteins, and more
    • cells
      • red blood cells (RBC)
        • transport O2 in hemoglobin
      • white blood cells (WBC)
        • defense & immunity
      • platelets
        • blood clotting
blood cell production
Blood Cell production

ribs, vertebrae, breastbone & pelvis

  • Stem cells
    • “parent” cells in bone marrow
    • differentiate into many different types of cells

white blood cells

white bloodcells

red bloodcells

red blood cells
Red blood cells
  • Small round cells
    • produced in bone marrow
    • 5 liters of blood in body
    • 5-6 million RBC in drop of human blood
    • last 3-4 months (120 days)
      • filtered out by liver
      • ~3 million RBC destroyed each second
hemoglobin
Hemoglobin
  • Protein which carries O2
    • 250,000 hemoglobins in 1 red blood cell

O2

O2

O2

O2

blood clotting

emergency repair of circulatory system

Blood clotting

chemicalemergencysignals

plateletsseal the hole

protein fibersbuild the clot

cardiovascular disease
Cardiovascular disease
  • Atherosclerosis & Arteriosclerosis
    • deposits inside arteries (plaques)
      • develop in inner wall of the arteries, narrowing their channel
    • increase blood pressure
    • increase risk of heart attack, stroke, kidney damage

normal artery

hardening of arteries

cardiovascular health
Cardiovascular health

bypass surgery

  • Risk Factors
    • genetics
    • diet
      • high animal fat
    • exercise & lifestyle
      • smoking
      • lack of exercise
heart disease
Heart Disease

Heart disease death rates 1996-2002Adults ages 35 and older

women heart disease
Women & Heart Disease

Death rates for heart disease per 100,000 women, 2002

  • Heart disease is 3rd leading cause of death among women aged 25–44 years & 2nd leading cause of death among women aged 45–64 years.

Risk factors

  • Smoking
  • Lack of exercise
  • High fat diet
  • Overweight