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Circulatory System in Animals. Feeding the Need for Energy. Supplies in fuel (sugars) digestive system oxygen respiratory system Waste out CO 2 respiratory system Need to pick up & deliver the supplies & wastes around the body circulatory system. Circulatory system.

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feeding the need for energy
Feeding the Need for Energy
  • Supplies in
    • fuel (sugars)
      • digestive system
    • oxygen
      • respiratory system
  • Waste out
    • CO2
      • respiratory system
  • Need to pick up & deliver the supplies & wastes around the body
    • circulatory system
circulatory system
Circulatory system
  • Made up of 3 parts
    • organ
      • heart
    • tissues & cells
      • blood
        • red blood cells
      • blood vessels(vascular system)
        • arteries
        • veins
        • capillaries
circulatory systems
Circulatory systems
  • All animals have:
    • muscular pump = heart
    • tubes = blood vessels
    • circulatory fluid = “blood”





vertebrate circulatory system




Vertebrate circulatory system
  • 2 part system


arteryto lungs

vein from lungsto heart


vein from bodyto heart


to body


circulation of blood in mammals
Circulation of Blood in Mammals

Circulationto lungs

  • 2 part system
    • Circulation to lungs
      • blood gets O2 from lungs
      • brings O2-rich blood back to heart
    • Circulation to body
      • pumps O2-rich blood to body
      • picks up nutrients from digestive system
      • brings CO2& cell wastes from body to heart




Circulationto body

stops along the way
Stops along the way…
  • Lungs
    • pick up O2 / clean out CO2
  • Small Intestines
    • pick up nutrients from digested food
  • Large Intestines
    • pick up water from digested food
  • Liver
    • clean out worn out blood cells
more stops along the way
More stops along the way…
  • Kidneys
    • filters out wastes (urea)
    • excess salts, sugars & water
  • Bone
    • picks up new red blood cells
  • Spleen
    • picks up new white blood cells
mammalian heart
Mammalian Heart
  • 4-Chambered heart
    • atria (atrium)
      • thin wall
      • collection chamber
      • receive blood
    • ventricles
      • thick wall pump
      • pump blood out





heart valves




Heart valves
  • 4 valves in the heart
    • flaps of connective tissue
    • prevent backflow
  • AV valve
    • between atrium & ventricle
    • keeps blood from flowing back into atrium when ventricle pumps
    • “lub”
  • Semilunar valves
    • between ventricle & arteries
    • prevent backflow from arteries into ventricles
    • “dub”

Heart murmur

  • leaking valve causes hissing sound
  • blood squirts backward through valve
electrical signals
Electrical signals
  • heart pumping controlled by electrical impulses
  • signal also transmitted to skin = EKG

stimulates ventricles to contract from bottom to top, driving blood into arteries

allows atria to empty completely before ventricles contract

measurement of blood pressure
Measurement of blood pressure
  • High Blood Pressure (hypertension)
    • if top number (pumping) > 150
    • if bottom number (filling) > 90
blood vessels
Blood vessels










arteries built for their job
Arteries: Built for their job
  • Arteries
    • blood flows away from heart
    • thicker walls
      • provide strength for high pressure pumping of blood
    • elastic & stretchable
      • maintains blood pressure even when heart relaxes
major arteries
Major arteries


carotid= to head

to brain & left arm

to right arm

to body


pulmonaryartery=to lungs

coronary arteries

coronary arteries
Coronary arteries

bypass surgery

veins built for their job
Veins: Built for their job

Blood flows

toward heart

  • Veins
    • blood returns back to heart
    • thinner-walled
      • blood travels back to heart at low speed & pressure
      • blood flows because muscles contract when we move
        • squeeze blood through veins
    • valves in large veins
      • in larger veins one-way valves allow blood to flow only toward heart


Closed valve

major veins
Major Veins

superiorvena cava= from upper body

pulmonaryvein= from lung

pulmonaryvein = from lung

inferiorvena cava= from lower body

capillary where all the action is
Capillary: Where all the action is
  • Capillaries
    • very thin walls
    • allows exchange of materials across capillary
      • O2, CO2, H2O, food, waste
      • diffusion
blood blood cells
Blood & blood cells
  • Blood is a tissue of fluid & cells
    • plasma
      • fluid
      • dissolved salts, sugars, proteins, and more
    • cells
      • red blood cells (RBC)
        • transport O2 in hemoglobin
      • white blood cells (WBC)
        • defense & immunity
      • platelets
        • blood clotting
blood cell production
Blood Cell production

ribs, vertebrae, breastbone & pelvis

  • Stem cells
    • “parent” cells in bone marrow
    • mature into many different types of cells

white blood cells

white bloodcells

red bloodcells

red blood cells
Red blood cells
  • Small round cells
    • produced in bone marrow
    • lose nucleus & mitochondria
      • more space for hemoglobin
        • iron-containing protein that transports O2
    • last 3-4 months (120 days)
      • filtered out by liver
      • ~3 million RBC destroyed each second
      • replaced by 3 million more produced each second
  • 5-6 million RBC in tiny drop of human blood
  • 5 liters of blood in body
  • Protein which carries O2




blood clotting

emergency repair of circulatory system

Blood clotting


plateletsseal the hole

fibrin protein fibersbuild clot

cardiovascular disease
Cardiovascular disease
  • Atherosclerosis & Arteriosclerosis
    • deposits inside arteries (plaques)
      • develop in inner wall of the arteries, narrowing their channel
    • increase blood pressure
    • increase risk of heart attack, stroke, kidney damage

normal artery

hardening of arteries

cardiovascular health
Cardiovascular health

bypass surgery

  • Genetic effects
  • Diet
    • diet rich in animal fat increases risk of CV disease
  • Exercise & lifestyle
    • smoking & lack of exercise increases risk of CV disease
heart disease
Heart Disease

Heart disease death rates 1996-2002Adults ages 35 and older

women heart disease
Women & Heart Disease

Death rates for heart disease per 100,000 women, 2002

  • Heart disease is 3rd leading cause of death among women aged 25–44 years & 2nd leading cause of death among women aged 45–64 years.

Risk factors

  • Smoking
  • Lack of exercise
  • High fat diet
  • Overweight