Circulatory System
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Circulatory System in Animals - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Circulatory System in Animals. Feeding the Need for Energy. Supplies in fuel (sugars) digestive system oxygen respiratory system Waste out CO 2 respiratory system Need to pick up & deliver the supplies & wastes around the body circulatory system. Circulatory system.

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Feeding the need for energy l.jpg
Feeding the Need for Energy

  • Supplies in

    • fuel (sugars)

      • digestive system

    • oxygen

      • respiratory system

  • Waste out

    • CO2

      • respiratory system

  • Need to pick up & deliver the supplies & wastes around the body

    • circulatory system

Circulatory system l.jpg
Circulatory system

  • Made up of 3 parts

    • organ

      • heart

    • tissues & cells

      • blood

        • red blood cells

      • blood vessels(vascular system)

        • arteries

        • veins

        • capillaries

Circulatory systems l.jpg
Circulatory systems

  • All animals have:

    • muscular pump = heart

    • tubes = blood vessels

    • circulatory fluid = “blood”





Vertebrate circulatory system l.jpg




Vertebrate circulatory system

  • 2 part system


arteryto lungs

vein from lungsto heart


vein from bodyto heart


to body


Circulation of blood in mammals l.jpg
Circulation of Blood in Mammals

Circulationto lungs

  • 2 part system

    • Circulation to lungs

      • blood gets O2 from lungs

      • brings O2-rich blood back to heart

    • Circulation to body

      • pumps O2-rich blood to body

      • picks up nutrients from digestive system

      • brings CO2& cell wastes from body to heart




Circulationto body

Stops along the way l.jpg
Stops along the way…

  • Lungs

    • pick up O2 / clean out CO2

  • Small Intestines

    • pick up nutrients from digested food

  • Large Intestines

    • pick up water from digested food

  • Liver

    • clean out worn out blood cells

More stops along the way l.jpg
More stops along the way…

  • Kidneys

    • filters out wastes (urea)

    • excess salts, sugars & water

  • Bone

    • picks up new red blood cells

  • Spleen

    • picks up new white blood cells

Mammalian heart l.jpg
Mammalian Heart

  • 4-Chambered heart

    • atria (atrium)

      • thin wall

      • collection chamber

      • receive blood

    • ventricles

      • thick wall pump

      • pump blood out





Heart valves l.jpg




Heart valves

  • 4 valves in the heart

    • flaps of connective tissue

    • prevent backflow

  • AV valve

    • between atrium & ventricle

    • keeps blood from flowing back into atrium when ventricle pumps

    • “lub”

  • Semilunar valves

    • between ventricle & arteries

    • prevent backflow from arteries into ventricles

    • “dub”

Heart murmur

  • leaking valve causes hissing sound

  • blood squirts backward through valve

Electrical signals l.jpg
Electrical signals

  • heart pumping controlled by electrical impulses

  • signal also transmitted to skin = EKG

stimulates ventricles to contract from bottom to top, driving blood into arteries

allows atria to empty completely before ventricles contract

Measurement of blood pressure l.jpg
Measurement of blood pressure

  • High Blood Pressure (hypertension)

    • if top number (pumping) > 150

    • if bottom number (filling) > 90

Blood vessels l.jpg
Blood vessels










Arteries built for their job l.jpg
Arteries: Built for their job

  • Arteries

    • blood flows away from heart

    • thicker walls

      • provide strength for high pressure pumping of blood

    • elastic & stretchable

      • maintains blood pressure even when heart relaxes

Major arteries l.jpg
Major arteries


carotid= to head

to brain & left arm

to right arm

to body


pulmonaryartery=to lungs

coronary arteries

Coronary arteries l.jpg
Coronary arteries

bypass surgery

Veins built for their job l.jpg
Veins: Built for their job

Blood flows

toward heart

  • Veins

    • blood returns back to heart

    • thinner-walled

      • blood travels back to heart at low speed & pressure

      • blood flows because muscles contract when we move

        • squeeze blood through veins

    • valves in large veins

      • in larger veins one-way valves allow blood to flow only toward heart


Closed valve

Major veins l.jpg
Major Veins

superiorvena cava= from upper body

pulmonaryvein= from lung

pulmonaryvein = from lung

inferiorvena cava= from lower body

Capillary where all the action is l.jpg
Capillary: Where all the action is

  • Capillaries

    • very thin walls

    • allows exchange of materials across capillary

      • O2, CO2, H2O, food, waste

      • diffusion

Blood blood cells l.jpg
Blood & blood cells

  • Blood is a tissue of fluid & cells

    • plasma

      • fluid

      • dissolved salts, sugars, proteins, and more

    • cells

      • red blood cells (RBC)

        • transport O2 in hemoglobin

      • white blood cells (WBC)

        • defense & immunity

      • platelets

        • blood clotting

Blood cell production l.jpg
Blood Cell production

ribs, vertebrae, breastbone & pelvis

  • Stem cells

    • “parent” cells in bone marrow

    • mature into many different types of cells

white blood cells

white bloodcells

red bloodcells

Red blood cells l.jpg
Red blood cells

  • Small round cells

    • produced in bone marrow

    • lose nucleus & mitochondria

      • more space for hemoglobin

        • iron-containing protein that transports O2

    • last 3-4 months (120 days)

      • filtered out by liver

      • ~3 million RBC destroyed each second

      • replaced by 3 million more produced each second

  • 5-6 million RBC in tiny drop of human blood

  • 5 liters of blood in body

Hemoglobin l.jpg

  • Protein which carries O2




Blood clotting l.jpg

emergency repair of circulatory system

Blood clotting


plateletsseal the hole

fibrin protein fibersbuild clot

Cardiovascular disease l.jpg
Cardiovascular disease

  • Atherosclerosis & Arteriosclerosis

    • deposits inside arteries (plaques)

      • develop in inner wall of the arteries, narrowing their channel

    • increase blood pressure

    • increase risk of heart attack, stroke, kidney damage

normal artery

hardening of arteries

Cardiovascular health l.jpg
Cardiovascular health

bypass surgery

  • Genetic effects

  • Diet

    • diet rich in animal fat increases risk of CV disease

  • Exercise & lifestyle

    • smoking & lack of exercise increases risk of CV disease

Heart disease l.jpg
Heart Disease

Heart disease death rates 1996-2002Adults ages 35 and older

Women heart disease l.jpg
Women & Heart Disease

Death rates for heart disease per 100,000 women, 2002

  • Heart disease is 3rd leading cause of death among women aged 25–44 years & 2nd leading cause of death among women aged 45–64 years.

Risk factors

  • Smoking

  • Lack of exercise

  • High fat diet

  • Overweight