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Pedagogy PowerPoint Presentation

Pedagogy

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Pedagogy

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  1. Pedagogy Luther Tychonievich Some slides borrowed from: Joanne McGrath Cohoon David F Feldon Colby Tofel-Grehl Camilo Vieira

  2. Understanding Learning “I try to understand how to help students learn. That is at least as complex as how plants grow, the properties of and reactions between chemicals, and the ways in which interplanetary bodies interact.” — Jack Wilkinson “It is likely that one can teach (even teach well) without understanding learning. Doing without understanding the doing is common.” — J. Phillip East

  3. This Talk • Two Truths • One Theory • Practices as time allows

  4. This Talk • Two Truths • One Theory • Practices as time allows

  5. Two Truths • By “truth” I mean • consensus of existing research • without well-conducted study with contrary findings (of which I am aware)

  6. Two Truths • Learning styles do not matter • Preferencesexist; but preference-targeted instruction does not improve learning outcomes (Kavale& Forness, 1987; Loo, 1997 ; Stahl, 1999; Richardson, 2000; Duff & Duffy, 2002; Henson & Hwang, 2002; Coffield et al., 2004, Massa & Mayer, 2006; Pashler et al., 2009) • Variedinstruction is generally a good idea • Discovery learning does not enhance learning • Confused, overwhelmed, and less motivated • Successful discovery- and non-discovery-taught students perform similarly on later tasks (Tuovinen & Sweller, 1999; Mayer, 2004; Klahr& Nigam, 2004; Kirschner et al., 2006; Alfieri et al., 2011)

  7. Two Truths • Learning styles do not matter • Preferencesexist; but preference-targeted instruction does not improve learning outcomes (Kavale& Forness, 1987; Loo, 1997 ; Stahl, 1999; Richardson, 2000; Duff & Duffy, 2002; Henson & Hwang, 2002; Coffield et al., 2004, Massa & Mayer, 2006; Pashler et al., 2009) • Variedinstruction is generally a good idea • Discovery learning does not enhance learning • Confused, overwhelmed, and less motivated • Successful discovery- and non-discovery-taught students perform similarly on later tasks (Tuovinen & Sweller, 1999; Mayer, 2004; Klahr& Nigam, 2004; Kirschner et al., 2006; Alfieri et al., 2011)

  8. Two Truths • Learning styles do not matter • Preferencesexist; but preference-targeted instruction does not improve learning outcomes (Kavale& Forness, 1987; Loo, 1997 ; Stahl, 1999; Richardson, 2000; Duff & Duffy, 2002; Henson & Hwang, 2002; Coffield et al., 2004, Massa & Mayer, 2006; Pashler et al., 2009) • Variedinstruction is generally a good idea • Discovery learning does not enhance learning • Confused, overwhelmed, and less motivated • Successful discovery- and non-discovery-taught students perform similarly on later tasks (Tuovinen & Sweller, 1999; Mayer, 2004; Klahr& Nigam, 2004; Kirschner et al., 2006; Alfieri et al., 2011)

  9. Two Truths • Learning styles do not matter • Preferencesexist; but preference-targeted instruction does not improve learning outcomes (Kavale& Forness, 1987; Loo, 1997 ; Stahl, 1999; Richardson, 2000; Duff & Duffy, 2002; Henson & Hwang, 2002; Coffield et al., 2004, Massa & Mayer, 2006; Pashler et al., 2009) • Variedinstruction is generally a good idea • Discovery learning does not enhance learning • Confused, overwhelmed, and less motivated • Successful discovery- and non-discovery-taught students perform similarly on later tasks (Tuovinen & Sweller, 1999; Mayer, 2004; Klahr& Nigam, 2004; Kirschner et al., 2006; Alfieri et al., 2011)

  10. This Talk • Two Truths • One Theory • Practices as time allows

  11. This Talk • Two Truths • One Theory • Practices as time allows

  12. Cognitive Load Theory • Your brain has • Sensory memory (I/O Buffers) • Working memory (Register file) • Long-term memory (RAM/Storage)

  13. Long-Term Memory • Hierarchical and contextual • Unlimited capacity and durability • Retrieval decays with disuse, improves with practice • We store • Schema (relationships between categories of information) • Procedures • Episodes

  14. Working Memory • Intrinsic load • Can’t add without two operands • Extraneous load • Parsing input given into task at hand • Distractions • Germane load • Creating associations with existing knowledge • Linking schema with other schemata

  15. Using Space Well • Working memory requirements decrease for • Organized knowledge • Practiced skills • Habits are unconscious (no space used)

  16. Many Things Waste Space: • Redundant or irrelevant information • Names, stories, connections to real world • Organization not yet understood • Unclear presentation • Unrelated noise or activity • Windows, pets, screen savers, decorations, instructor ticks, other students, … • Anxiety, stress, pressure to perform

  17. When Space Exceeded • Miss details (I/O packets dropped) • Revert to habit (which take no space) • Includes habits of categorizing input • Often changes procedures and goals

  18. Ergo What? • Present new information from simple (cognitively small) to complex (cognitively large) • Repeatedly practice new skills in simple situations before applying them in context • Do not present unnecessary information • Including application or flavor • At least not until skill on its way to habit • Make use of existing habits only if they work unmodified

  19. This Talk • Two Truths • One Theory • Practices as time allows

  20. This Talk • Two Truths • One Theory • Practices as time allows

  21. Pair Programming • Two minds, one focus (works in any field) • Requires coaching and supervision • Many studies on pair selection; no consensus • Often opposite methods both have support • I show http://y2u.be/rG_U12uqRhE from 3:55 to 7:55 • Especially 5:36 and 6:13 • You’ll have more on this in a few weeks

  22. Partially Worked Examples • Helps learn material without cognitive load spent learning the goal of the material • The Use-Modify-Create pattern most self-taught programmers adopt instinctively • Shown particularly effective for novice- and intermediate-level students • Throttles addition of challenge, reducing anxiety

  23. Instruction/Practice Loop • In a tight loop, • Teach a small step • Work examples • Practice • Repeat • Lecture + worksheet not effective: work examples, provide feedback on practice

  24. Work ≠ Practice • Teach how to approach the problems • Model the solution process • Have students rephrase, elaborate, and summarize • Remove scaffolding slowly • Don’t practice incorrect processes • Observe work; back up if misunderstood • Don’t move on until at least 80% success

  25. Begin with Review • Daily review as the opening to a lesson • Strengthens recall • Reinforces correct schemata • Repairs incorrectly-stored information • Shrinks cognitive size of important concepts

  26. Weekly and Monthly Review • Review not only daily, but also weekly and monthly • Builds recall skills • Links concepts together in student mind • Compresses concepts for easier use

  27. Ask Many Questions • In general, more questions is better • Questions should • Engage all students • Contribute to learning • Be answerable and safe to answer • Avoid the Same Three People phenomenon • Pairing, writing, polling, etc.

  28. Question Templates • How are __________ and __________ alike? • What is the main idea of __________? • What are the strengths and weaknesses of __________? • In what way is __________ related to __________? • Compare __________ and __________ with regard to __________. • What do you think causes __________? • How does __________ tie in with what we have learned before? • Which one is the best __________, and why? • What are some possible solutions for the problem of __________? • Do you agree or disagree with this statement: __________? • What do you still not understand about __________? • What is a question others might have about __________?

  29. Intellect Grows • IQ is a snapshot, not a destiny • Our brains, like our muscles, get stronger by working through challenges • Think and speak in terms of diligenceand work, not ability and gift • Particularly important if externalities label student as “not right” for the field

  30. Self Affirmation • Students who are given a chance to affirm their own values are less impacted by the pressures around them • Some studies show that a single exercise writing a paragraph about • What you value • Why it is important to you • That you try to live up to these values reduced stereotype threat for two years

  31. Neither Condemn nor Condone • Have the same high standard for all students • Give feedback that identifies areas for improvement • Be specific on how to achieve the standards • Express confidence that student can achieve that improvement

  32. Inhibit Grandstanding • Known: grandstanding is a problem • Unknown: best ways to discourage it • Ideas?

  33. Give Encouragement • http://y2u.be/_gQ84-vWNGU

  34. Engaging Examples • Students focus more and learn faster if they care • Ask them what they care about • Either generally, then design applicable examples and assignments • Or specifically about a menu of possible examples • Unclear how much impact this has…

  35. Odds and Ends • Ability to rotate 2D and 3D images in your head is positively correlated with CS performance; increasing rotation skills increases CS too • Offer encouragement and hope, not sympathy • Praise process, not person (no helpful sentence begins with the words “you are”) • Tie new topic to interests, but don’t do so during learning new topic (it’s extraneous mental load)

  36. See Also • A summary of research in instruction:http://www.aft.org/pdfs/americaneducator/spring2012/Rosenshine.pdf • Resources on Pair Programming:http://www.realsearchgroup.org/realsearch/category/publications/pair-programming/ • NCWIT Teaching Resources:http://www.ncwit.org/resources?field_goals_tid[]=246