Chapter 2: Values and Ethics This chapter will cover • Value assumptions • Conflicts between value assumptions • Value priorities • Ideal values versus real values • Ethics in argumentation • Ethical decision making
Values and Ethics Assumptions • Unstated (and often unconscious) beliefs
Value Assumptions and Conflicts Values Truth Loyalty Freedom • Beliefs, ideals, or principles that are considered worthy and held in high regard.
Beliefs about how the world is Chapter 3 Values Assumptions Value assumptions: Reality assumptions: • Beliefs about how the world should be • What is more important • Form the foundation of an • argument.
Value Assumptions and Conflicts Value Conflict • When two competing values cannot be held to the same degree in a given argument or situation:
Skill Understand that different values form the basis of many arguments and that conflicts are often based on differing value priorities.
Value Conflicts Issue: When my roommate asks how she looks in her new outfit, should I tell her that she has hideous taste in clothes? Conclusion: I’ll tell her its ugly and that she should never buy her own clothes because she couldn’t dress a scarecrow! Value Assumption? Honesty Reason: She expects and deserves an honest answer.
Ethics- A Dimension of Values Ethics • Standards of conduct that reflecting what we consider to be right or wrong
Ethics- A Dimension of Values Morals • Principles that distinguish right from wrong behavior
Ethics Why we have disagreements • We hold many values in common, but to different degrees…
Ethics • Libertarianism: promote individual liberty • Utilitarianism: promote the greatest general happiness/minimize unhappiness • Egalitarianism: promote equality for all • Religious: promote faith spirituality • Prima facie values: universal ethical principles Some Common Ethics
Ideal Values and Real Values Ideal Values • Held by an individual in a theoretical sense
Ideal Values and Real Values Real Values • Theoretical and practiced
Ethics U.S. Declaration of Independence "We hold these truths to be self ‑ evident, that all [men] are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights*, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness." * Natural (life and liberty) vs legal
Ethics in Argumentation • Honesty in conclusions • Do not omit or distort • Thoroughly research claims made • Listen respectfully to opposing viewpoints • Be willing to revise position • Credit secondary sources
Ethical Decision Making How do we know what our principles and standards are? • Role Exchange Test • The Universal Consequences Test • The New Cases Test • The Higher Principles Test
Common Rationalizations • If It’s Necessary, It’s Ethical The False Necessity Trap • If It’s Legal and Permissible, It’s Ethical • I Was Just Doing It For You Ethics in action
Common Rationalizations • I’m Just Fighting Fire With Fire • It Doesn’t Hurt Anyone, & Everyone’s Doing It • It’s O.K. If I Don’t Gain Personally • I’ve Got It Coming (I Deserve It) • I can still be objective Ethics in action
Toulmin’s Model A Method for Discovering Assumptions Claims Reasons Warrants
Toulmin’s Model: Claim • A statement of an individual’s belief or stand upon an issue
Toulmin’s Model Warrant • The unstated but necessary link between reasons and claims
Toulmin’s Model Claim: We will have to leave at 5 a.m. to make our flight Warrant: ? Rush hour traffic moves more slowly than other traffic Reason: We will be driving in rush hour traffic. because
Chapter 2: Values and Ethics Checkup • What are value conflicts • Name some ethics to use in an argument • Difference between ideal and real values • What are some common rationalizations