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ETHICS AND VALUES II Info for first partial. Lic. Ana Lilia Acosta Patoni 2013. ETHICS AND VALUES II COURSE. BLOCK I Acknowledge the relationship of ethics to science and technology BLOCK II Conflicts of medical practice and bioethics

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ethics and values ii info for first partial

ETHICS AND VALUES IIInfoforfirstpartial

Lic. Ana Lilia Acosta Patoni 2013

ethics and values ii course
ETHICS AND VALUES II COURSE

BLOCK I Acknowledge the relationship of ethics to science and technology

BLOCK II Conflicts of medical practice and bioethics

BLOCK III Acquires an environmental education for sustainable development

BLOCK IV Applicable dimensions of conscience in different areas

block 1 recognizes the relationship of ethics to science and technology
Block 1. Recognizes the relationship of Ethics to science and technology.
  • http://www-hsc.usc.edu/~mbernste/ethics.science_and_ethics.html
  • Science is a discipline of knowledge which involves many aspects of human thought and endeavor.
  • Ethics is concerned with human character and conduct.
  • One might think that science cannot be science without a consideration of the ethics involved. But is that really true?
  • http://www.monografias.com/trabajos89/ciencia-tecnologia-e-innovacion-como-alternativa-desarrollo/ciencia-tecnologia-e-innovacion-como-alternativa-desarrollo.shtml

.

http://www.redhucyt.oas.org/ricyt/interior/biblioteca/polcuch.pdf

self awareness1
SELF AWARENESS
  • I AM ME
  • Techniquestobecomeaware of myself and myfeelings and emotions
  • FEELINGS AND EMOTIONS
  • http://www.discover-your-mind.co.uk/1am%20-%20emotions-1.htm#feelings
  • ONE MOMENT MEDITATIION http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F6eFFCi12v8
  • SELF AWARENESS http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yyHmlcp2YCQ
self awareness2
SelfAwareness

FEELINGS

EMOTIONS

consciousness
CONSCIOUSNESS
  • CONSCIOUSNESS HAS

THREE MODES:

  • will (or will power), 
  • mind, and 
  • feeling.
  • Will is a pure striving, an undirected effort. When will is united with mind, it generates desire.
  • Desire is the activity of will directed into a mental concept. The concept governs the use of will. The concept directsthewill.
  • www.discover-your-mind.co.uk
slide8
QUIZ
  • Could you explain the way we should breath in order to control our emotions and be aware of ourselves?
  • DEFINE
  • and give 3 EXAMPLES of
  • FEELINGS and 3 of
  • EMOTIONS
differences between science and ethics
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SCIENCE, AND ETHICS

Science- In science everything thing can be proved and can be experimented. There will be a solid reason behind every thing.

Science is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding of how the physical world works.

Through controlled methods, scientists use observable physical evidence of natural phenomena to collect data, and analyze this information to explain what and how things work.

Such methods include experimentation that tries to simulate natural phenomena under controlled conditions and thought experiments. Knowledge in science is gained through research.

Science: experiments, evidence, theories, scientists, physics, biology, chemistry

In Ethics - the action part is important. The way one behaves with discipline and orderliness. Moral, intellectual and spiritual areas are covered in ethics.

A central aspect of ethics is "the good life", the life worth living or life that is simply satisfying, which is held by many philosophers to be more important than moral conduct.

Ethics: moral values, good and bad, guilt, criminology, values, what different people consider as good and what different people considers as evil.

differences between science and ethics1
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SCIENCE, AND ETHICS

Science = laboratory proof, repeated over and over.Philosophy = thought patterns to come to an opinion, true or false.Ethics = the rules of society, and religionsPeace.

--Science is seeking the truth--Philosophy is seeking wisdom--Ethics are putting the content of both truth and wisdom in the right acceptable shape to the majority of people.

Science: experiments, evidence, theories, scientists, physics, biology, chemistryPhilosophy:belief, quotes, proverbs, thoughts, ideas, views, ideology, philosophersEthics: moral values, good and bad, guilt, criminology, values, what different people consider as good and what different people considers as evil.

slide11
QUIZ

Answer (T) for True or (F) for False, according to each question

  • 1. - Science is a discipline of knowledge which involves many aspects of human thought and endeavor. ________
  • 2. - Ethics is concerned with human character and conduct ________
  • 3. - Knowledge in science is gained through research ________
  • 4.- Science teaches us moral values, good and bad, values, what different people consider as good and what different people considers as bad. ­­ ________
  • 5. - Science is seeking the truth. ________
why should ethics regulate the development of techno scientific fields
WhyshouldEthicsregulatethedevelopment of techno-scientificfields?
  • http://ec.europa.eu/research/science-society/document_library/pdf_06/ethical-and-regulatory-challenges-042012_en.pdf
  • http://ec.europa.eu/research/science-society/index.cfm?fuseaction=public.topic&id=1252
  • http://www.ictethics.eu/
block 2 problematizes conflicts of medical practice and bioethics
Block 2. Problematizes conflicts of medical practice and Bioethics.

They claim that it is possible to deal effectively with moral problems like those encountered in bioethics by relying on four basic principles: autonomy (allowing others to make their own decisions according to their own personal life plans), nonmaleficence (not doing harm), beneficence (promoting good), and justice (treating others fairly) without appealing to theoretical considerations about their nature and their justification.

http://www.nvcc.edu/home/aaoudjit/methods.htm

http://www.llu.edu/central/bioethics/prov2_92.page

.

some specific fields of b ioethics
Some specific fields of Bioethics:
  • Ethical Issues in Death and Dying
  • Ethical Issues of Human Reproduction
  • EthicalIssues in Genetics
some specific fields of bioethics
Some specific fields of Bioethics:
  • Medical Ethics and the Law
  • This field concerns the relationship between clinical bioethics and the law that has evolved as clinical care has become increasingly complex with new medical technologies. It emphasizes legal theories and principles concerning ethical issues in the context of clinical care. Topics include advance directives, proxy decision-making, issues of consent and confidentiality, withholding and withdrawing care, the definition of death, mental competence and related matters.
  • Ethics of Research and Experimentation[
  • This field concerns the principles of clinical and experimental research ethics and the regulation of research practices, particularly from the perspectives of the Nuremberg code and the Helsinki declaration. Topics include: scientific and research integrity; research with adult and pediatric human subjects; informed consent; vulnerable study populations; privacy and confidentiality of research and clinical records; conflicts of interest; research on animals; and research in third world nations.
  • Ethical Issues in Death and Dying[
  • This field concerns the ethical issues associated with care of the terminally ill and with death issues more generally. Topics include: death; the definition and diagnosis of brain death; chronic vegetative states; loss of personhood; right-to-life/right-to-die; euthanasia; infanticide; physician-assisted suicide; palliative care; pain management; quality of life and related issues.
  • Ethical Issues in Health Care Allocation and Government Policy
  • This field concerns issues related to access to health care resources and on ways of understanding the issues of fairness and justice on an institutional system such as health care. Various models of paying for health care services and the ethical issues inherent in such systems, particularly in settings of limited resources are an important theme. Topics include: use of surrogates, transplantation policy, problems of financing, the allocation of resources, and experimentation.
some specific fields of bioethics1
Some specific fields of Bioethics:
  • Ethical Issues of Human Reproduction
  • This field concerns the various philosophical, legal and ethical issues dealing with human reproduction and considers differing philosophic and ethical positions relating to human reproduction. Topics include genetic engineering, reproductive technologies such as artificial insemination and in vitro fertilization, cloning, sanctity of life, the notion of family, etc.
  • Religion and Bioethics
  • This field concerns the various philosophical and ethical considerations of different religious faiths in the particular context of bioethics. Issues include: similarities and differences between religious faith and reasoned justification, the role of faith in morality and ethics, and the relationship of certain established faith traditions (e.g., Christianity, Judiasm, Islam) to particular issues in clinical and experimental medicine.
  • Ethical Relationships and the Health Care Team[
  • This concerns the role of and relationships between various members of the health care team, focusing on their roles and responsibilities and how they influence decision making and communication regarding ethical issues. Issues concern the appropriate ways to resolve interpersonal difficulties such as challenging or disobeying a superior, reporting or stopping inappropriate behavior, and expressing moral or ethical judgments.
  • Bioethics Committees and Consulting[
  • This field concerns the workings of hospital and university bioethics committees, institutional review boards, and bioethics consultants, focusing on understanding of nature, purpose and structure of these committees and of the role of bioethicists in such committees. National and international guidelines dealing with experimentation with human subjects, especially the Nuremberg code, are considered.
  • Ethical Issues in Genetics[
  • This field concerns the bioethical issues present in the rapidly developing area of genetic technology, including the nature and methods of DNA analysis, the concept of genetic disease, genetic testing / screening for various diseases, genetic engineering of plants, animals and humans, and cloning. Social policy issues related to genetically modified foods are also important concerns.
bioetics and tobacco
BIOETICS AND TOBACCO
  • Tobacco is a legal product and smoking it is a legal practice, at least in most locales. Yet it is understood by all to be unhealthy and a cause of/contributing factor to several diseases leading to disability and death. One interesting question is whether the life-long smoker's right to national health insurance (such as the US Medicare system) to cover the treatment of lung cancer should be forfeited because of this self-destructive behavior.
  • According to the World Health Organization one out of every two long-term smokers will ultimately be killed by tobacco [1]. They note that “in developed countries, half will be killed in old age, after age seventy, but the other half will be killed in middle age, before age seventy, and those who die from smoking before age seventy will lose more than 20 years of life expectancy”. In the USA, a 1998 study by Leonard Miller, professor of social welfare at the University of California Berkeley and Dorothy Rice, professor emeritus of health economics at the UCSF School of Nursing found that “smoking-related Medicaid costs amount to $12.9 billion per year, or $322 billion in 25 years without inflation”, a figure that they noted “does not include the financial impact of cigarette smoking on Medicare or private insurance companies” [2].
  • About 75% of Americans do not smoke, yet everyone pays for the cost of treating tobacco-related illnesses via higher insurance premiums and taxes. Many people argue that it is not fair that non-smokers have to pay many billions of dollars in health insurance premiums and taxes for the medical treatment of smokers. Given the well-established link between long-term tobacco use and lung cancer, this has led some individuals to suggest that life-long smokers should be denied Medicare or Medicaid health insurance coverage for the treatment of lung cancer.
  • However, such a policy may be both impractical and unethical.
  • First, while there is no doubt that health care costs are higher for smokers, the extra health care costs to Medicare and Medicaid associated with smoking can be recovered simply by increasing the price of cigarettes. This would be a particularly effective alternative to denying Medicare services to smokers, since there is strong data to suggest that raising the cost of cigarettes is one of the most effective ways of reducing consumption.
bioetics and tobacco1
BIOETICS AND TOBACCO
  • Secondly, tobacco smoking is hardly the only form of self-destructive behavior. Other self-destructive practices that one might focus one include the following:
  • excessive alcohol consumption
  • not wearing seatbelts while driving
  • participation in unsafe sexual practices
  • excessive food consumption leading to morbid obesity
  • use of dangerous recreational drugs such as cocaine or heroin
  • participation in dangerous sports without sufficient attention to safety issues
  • In the interests of fairness, if one were to deny Medicare services to smokers, it would also be necessary to deny Medicare services to individuals who sustain clinical insults as a result of other self-destructive behavior. It should be apparent that this would be a logistical nightmare.
  • Third, if life-long smokers on Medicare health insurance should be denied coverage for the treatment of lung cancer, they should also be denied coverage for other diseases strongly linked to smoking: coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bladder cancer, and even age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness.
  • Fourth, the US government has not made a concerted effort to reduce tobacco use. Industry commentators often point out that there is an incestuous relationship between the tobacco industry and US government. While the idea of regulating tobacco use and creating a "smoke-free" society remains a popular dream in Washington, the reality is that the federal government and the 50 states eagerly consume a steady flow of sin taxes generated by the sale and consumption of tobacco products. Furthermore, and most amazingly, Washington continues to subsidize the growth of tobacco. Some critics suggest that the US federal government should clean up its own house first before implementing draconian Medicare policies of the nature suggested.
  • Fifth, there are many causes of lung cancer besides tobacco smoking, and some forms of lung cancer (e.g. small cell cancer) are not related to smoking at all. Radon exposure, exposure to asbestos, and even dietary factors may account for many cases of lung cancer. In fact, the only form of lung cancer that is unequivocally linked to smoking is squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Finally, medicine has a humane tradition of being nonjudgmental and caring for all regardless of social worth or social standing. Public policy should reflect this. Some critics suggest that setting into place a policy whereby a life-long smoker's access to Medicare for the treatment of lung cancer should be forfeited is inhumane in the extreme. Such action says to the patient that he or she is unworthy of our clinical attention, and is in clear violation of the principle of beneficence.
  • References[edit]
  • [1] TOBACCO – HEALTH FACTS. WHO Fact Sheet No 221. April 1999. http://www.who.int/inf-fs/en/fact221.html
  • [2] http://www.ucsf.edu/daybreak/1998/03/309_cig.htm
principles in applied ethical discussions
PRINCIPLES IN APPLIED ETHICAL DISCUSSIONS:
  • Personal benefit: acknowledge the extent to which an action produces beneficial consequences for the individual in question. 
  • Social benefit: acknowledge the extent to which an action produces beneficial consequences for society. 
  • Principle of benevolence:help those in need. 
  • Principle of paternalism: assist others in pursuing their best interests when they cannot do so themselves. 
  • Principle of harm: do not harm others. 
  • Principle of honesty: do not deceive others. 
  • Principle of lawfulness:do not violate the law. 
  • Principle of autonomy: acknowledge a person's freedom over his/her actions or physical body. 
  • Principle of justice: acknowledge a person's right to due process, fair compensation for harm done, and fair distribution of benefits. 
  • Rights: acknowledge a person's rights to life, information, privacy, free expression, and safety.(Source: The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Ethics): Ethics [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] URL: http://groups.able2know.org/philforum/topic/2812-1
principles of bioethics
Principles of Bioethics
  • http://depts.washington.edu/bioethx/tools/princpl.html
  • What are the major principles of medical ethics?
  • The commonly accepted principles of health care ethics include:
  • the principle of respect for autonomy,
  • the principle of nonmaleficence,
  • the principle of beneficence, and
  • the principle of justice.
principles of bioethics1
Principles of Bioethics

1. The Principle Of Respect For Autonomy

2. The Principle Of Nonmaleficence,

Any notion of moral decision making assumes that rational agents are involved in making informed and voluntary decisions. In health care decisions, our respect for the autonomy of the patient would, in common parlance, mean that the patient has the capacity to act intentionally, with understanding, and without controlling influences that would mitigate against a free and voluntary act. This principle is the basis for the practice of "informed consent" in the physician/patient transaction regarding health care. 

The principle of nonmaleficence requires of us that we not intentionally create a needless harm or injury to the patient, either through acts of commission or omission. In common language, we consider it negligence if one imposes a careless or unreasonable risk of harm upon another. Providing a proper standard of care that avoids or minimizes the risk of harm is supported not only by our commonly held moral convictions, but by the laws of society as well. In a professional model of care one may be morally and legally blameworthy if one fails to meet the standards of due care. The legal criteria for determining negligence are as follows:

the professional must have a duty to the affected party

the professional must breach that duty

the affected party must experience a harm; and

the harm must be caused by the breach of duty.

This principle affirms the need for medical competence. It is clear that medical mistakes occur, however, this principle articulates a fundamental commitment on the part of health care professionals to protect their patients from harm.

principles of bioethics the principle of beneficence
Principles of Bioethics. The Principle of Beneficence
  • The ordinary meaning of this principle is the duty of health care providers to be of a benefit to the patient, as well as to take positive steps to prevent and to remove harm from the patient. These duties are viewed as self-evident and are widely accepted as the proper goals of medicine. These goals are applied both to individual patients, and to the good of society as a whole. For example, the good health of a particular patient is an appropriate goal of medicine, and the prevention of disease through research and the employment of vaccines is the same goal expanded to the population at large.
  • It is sometimes held that nonmaleficence is a constant duty, that is, one ought never to harm another individual. Whereas, beneficence is a limited duty. A physician has a duty to seek the benefit of any or all of her patients, however, the physician may also choose whom to admit into his or her practice, and does not have a strict duty to benefit patients not acknowledged in the panel. This duty becomes complex if two patients appeal for treatment at the same moment. Some criteria of urgency of need might be used, or some principle of first come first served, to decide who should be helped at the moment.
principles of bioethics 4 the principle of justice
Principles of Bioethics4. The Principle of Justice
  • Justice in health care is usually defined as a form of fairness, or as Aristotle once said, "giving to each that which is his due." This implies the fair distribution of goods in society and requires that we look at the role of entitlement. The question of distributive justice also seems to hinge on the fact that some goods and services are in short supply, there is not enough to go around, thus some fair means of allocating scarce resources must be determined.
  • It is generally held that persons who are equals should qualify for equal treatment. This is borne out in the application of Medicare, which is available to all persons over the age of 65 years. This category of persons is equal with respect to this one factor, their age, but the criteria chosen says nothing about need or other noteworthy factors about the persons in this category. In fact, our society uses a variety of factors as a criteria for distributive justice, including the following:
  • to each person an equal share
  • to each person according to need
  • to each person according to effort
  • to each person according to contribution
  • to each person according to merit
  • to each person according to free-market exchanges
  • John Rawls and others claim that many of the inequalities we experience are a result of a "natural lottery" or a "social lottery" for which the affected individual is not to blame, therefore, society ought to help even the playing field by providing resources to help overcome the disadvantaged situation. One of the most controversial issues in modern health care is the question pertaining to "who has the right to health care?" Or, stated another way, perhaps as a society we want to be beneficent and fair and provide some decent minimum level of health care for all citizens, regardless of ability to pay.
abortion
ABORTION
  • An abortion is the removal or expulsion of an embryo or fetus from the uterus.
  • It may be induced or spontaneous (miscarriage).
  • Types of Abortions
  • There are 2 types of abortions.
  • Spontaneous  abortion refers to a natural process by which the embryo is expelled. It is also referred to as a miscarriage.
  • Induced abortion refers to termination of pregnancy through intervention.

http://www.srhmatters.org/reproductive-health/abortion/

spontaneous abortion or miscarriage
Spontaneous Abortion or Miscarriage
  • Spontaneous Abortion or Miscarriage
  • A large percentage of the product of the union of an egg and a sperm does not get implanted in the uterus and therefore the uterus often has to expel it. This may occur very early on with the woman only experiencing a larger than usual blood flow around the time of her expected menstrual period, or it may occur later.
  • When it occurs later, the event is commonly called a miscarriage, but technically it is a spontaneous abortion if it occurs before twenty weeks of conceptionSpontaneousabortions can be the body’s way of preventing the birth of a defective child. Sometimes they may also occur due to maternal health problems.
induced abortions
INDUCED ABORTIONS
  • Induced Abortions
  • These result from a planned interruption or termination of pregnancy. Medical and surgical methods may be used for induced abortions.
therapeutic abortions
Therapeutic Abortions
  • Therapeutic Abortions
  • This term refers to abortions that are thought to be necessary because of fetal anomalies, rape, or to protect the health of the mother when the birth of a child might be life threatening or may be physically or psychologically damaging to her.
elective or voluntary abortions
Elective or Voluntary Abortions
  • Elective or Voluntary Abortions
  • Termination of the embryo at the woman’s request for reasons other than fetal anomalies or maternal risk is often referred to as elective or voluntary abortion. Such abortions often result from social problems, such as teenage pregnancy, non-marital births, and economic difficulties such as insufficient income to support a child, inappropriate timing or failed contraceptive usage.
unsafe abortion
Unsafe Abortion
  • Unsafe Abortion
  • An unsafe abortion is the termination of an unintended pregnancy by persons lacking the necessary skills, or in an environment lacking the minimal medical standards, or both.
  • Unsafe abortion is a significant maternal health risk. According to WHO, worldwide, 48% of all induced abortions are unsafe and responsible of one in eight maternal deaths.Complications of unsafe abortion include incomplete abortion, infection, heavy bleeding, and injury to the internal organs, such as puncturing or tearing of the uterus resulting in permanent loss of ability to conceive (infertility).
medical abortion
Medical Abortion
  • Medical Abortion
  • Medical abortion is non-surgical abortion that uses pharmaceutical drugs. It is an option for women who are 8 weeks pregnant or less.
medical abortion some questions answers
Medical AbortionSomequestions-answers
  • How far along in the pregnancy can you be?
  • Up to 8 weeks (49 days) for best success (97%). Success rates decrease as the pregnancy advances.
  • How long does it take?
  • It usually takes several hours for the abortion to occur.
  • How painful is it?
  • From mild to very strong cramping off and on throughout the abortion (commonly a 1 to 3 hour period). Simple pain killers can be taken for such pains.
  • How much would you bleed?
  • Heavy bleeding and passing clots is common during the abortion. Afterwards, lighter bleeding is common from 9 to 14 days or longer.
  • Can you still have children afterwards?
  • Yes.
  • What are the side-effects?
  • Side-effects may include heavy bleeding, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and heavy cramping.
surgical abortion
SurgicalAbortion
  • Surgical Abortion
  • There are two surgical methods of abortion; suction-aspiration and dilation and evacuation (D&E)
surgical abortion some questions and answers
SurgicalAbortionSomequestions and answers
  • How far along in the pregnancy can you be?
  • Suction-Aspiration method for pregnancy of 6-12 weeks. A pregnancy less than 6 weeks may increase the chance of failed abortion.Dilatation and Evacuation method for pregnancy of 15 to approximately 26 weeks.
  • How long does it take?
  • One 3-4 hour visit to the clinic. The abortion procedure itself takes 3 to 5 minutes.
  • How painful is it?
  • From mild to very strong cramping during the abortion (commonly a 5 to 10 minute period). Pain killers are often given during the procedure.
  • How much would you bleed?
  • Usually light to moderate bleeding and may continue for up to 6-8 weeks.
  • Can you still have children afterwards?
  • Yes, provided the procedure is done by an expert.
  • Are there any side-effects or complications?
  • Complications are rare (less than 1%) if the procedure is done by an expert. Nausea, vomiting and headache can happen due to anesthesia or pain killers.
legal abortion guide in mexico df
LEGAL ABORTION GUIDE IN MEXICO DF

http://www.gire.org.mx/publica2/GuiaAbortoLegalDF_agosto10.pdf

case ethical dilemma teenage pregnancy
CASE: ETHICAL DILEMMA: Teenage Pregnancy
  • Summary of the Case
  • Calamity Jane has come to the office today for her 13-year-old well child check up. She lives with her great Aunt Dora and her family. The family consists of Uncle Markus, Aunt Dora, cousin Suzy who is a 10 year old girl, and Wild Bill, the couple’s 29 year old son.
  • Aunt Dora has noticed that Calamity had been gaining weight over the past few months and is concerned as Calamity had a “kidney problem” when she was 3 years old. She reports her last menstrual
  • period was two weeks ago and she denies sexual activity.
  • Current vital signs are within normal range for a 13 year old girl. The significant finding of her physical exam revealed a large central abdominal mass. The sonogram findings indicated a 36 week of gestation fetus. Calamity admits to having a sexual relationship with her 29 year old second cousin Wild Bill.
  • Aunt Dora wants Calamity to have an abortion.
  • Do you agree or not?
  • Why?
  • What kind of abortion should be practiced on her, in case it is decided to be practiced on her?
slide38
QUIZ

Name three benefits and three damages that science and technologies give us. ( 6 points)

Benefits

Damages

Explain and give two examples why techno-scientific development should be regulated by Ethics? ( 5 points)

slide39

TYPES OF ABORTIONThe type of abortion procedure used in elective pregnancy termination is primarily determined by how far a woman is into pregnancy.During the first trimester, you will usually have the option of having a medical abortion procedure or a surgical abortion procedure.

Medical Abortion

SurgicalAbortion

Medical Abortion

As the name suggests, medical abortions do not involve surgery or other invasive methods but rely on medications to end pregnancy.

All surgical abortions are medical procedures that must be done in a health care provider's office or clinic.

There are several different surgical abortion options. How far along a woman is in her pregnancy often determines what method will be used.

abortion in mexico www un org abortion mexico do
ABORTION IN MEXICOwww.un.org/.../abortion/.../mexico.do
  • Grounds on which abortion is permitted:
  • To save the life of the woman Yes
  • To preserve physical health No*
  • To preserve mental health No*
  • Rape or incest Yes
  • Foetal impairment No*
  • Economic or social reasons No*
  • Available on request No
  • Additional requirements:
  • Under most state provisions on abortion, legal abortions must generally be performed during the first 12 weeks (or 90 days) of gestation. Except in emergency cases, all induced abortions must be performed by a physician whose opinion on the necessity of the abortion is corroborated by another physician. Consent of the woman, or in certain instances (minors, etc.), that of her husband, parents or guardians, is required before the abortion is performed.
  • *Abortion law in Mexico is determined at the state level. The grounds checked refer only to the abortion law of the Federal District; some other states allow abortions to be performed on grounds (2), (3), (5) and (6).
what is gire
WHAT IS GIRE?

Grupode deInformación en ReproducciónElegida(Information Group on Reproductive Choice, GIRE) is a non-profit, non-governmental organization founded in 1991. 

Mission is to promote and defend women’s reproductive rights, within the context of human rights.

https://www.gire.org.mx/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=392&Itemid=1115&lang=en

through its history, GIRE has become a reference in the defense of reproductive rights not only in Mexico, but also throughout Latin America and the Caribbean.

Grupo de Información en Reproducción Elegida, AC.Apartado postal 21-147 Admón. 21, Coyoacán, México, DF. Tel. 5658-6645 y fax 5658-6684.

is abortion allowed facts and figures
IS ABORTION ALLOWED?FACTS AND FIGURES

DF, CHIHUAHUA, BC Sur,

VERACRUZ

Legal indication in the Penal Code

Rape

Pregnancyterminationresultingfrom a “carelessact”

Risktothewoman’slife

Fetal anomalies

Artifitialinseminationwithoutthewoman’sconsent

At thewoman’srequest.- Duringthefirst 12 weeks

Legal indication in the Penal Code

Rape

Pregnancyterminationresultingfrom a “carelessact”

Risktothewoman’slife

Fetal anomalies

Artifitialinseminationwithoutthewoman’sconsent

https://www.gire.org.mx/index.php?option=com_content&view=frontpage&Itemid=1103&lang=en

what are ethical principles
What are EthicalPrinciples?
  • Ethical principles are guidelines based on morality than determinethe lengths or boundaries a person or business sets for itself.
  • For example, a person who wants to get rich at any cost will tend to have low ethics; whereas, a person who confirms that there are some things he or she is not willing to do to become rich will tend to have higher ethics.
what are bioethical issues
What are BioethicalIssues?
  • The term bioethics refers to the branch of ethics which studies moral values in the field of medicine and biology. Simply put, these are issues that question the morality of various medical and biological procedures. People who are concerned about these issues and work towards their eradication from society are referred to as bioethicists. These issues range from the use of birth control pills to mercy killing of an individual suffering from a terminal illness. Other than human experimentation, animal experimentation has also been under the scanner as one of the most serious issues prevailing in the field of biomedical sciences today.
  • Read more at Buzzle: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/bioethical-issues.html
slide45

PRINCIPLES IN APPLIED ETHICAL DISCUSSIONS:

  • Personal benefit: acknowledge the extent to which an action produces beneficial consequences for the individual in question. 
  • Social benefit: acknowledge the extent to which an action produces beneficial consequences for society. 
  • Principle of benevolence:help those in need. 
  • Principle of paternalism: assist others in pursuing their best interests when they cannot do so themselves. 
  • Principle of harm: do not harm others. 
  • Principle of honesty: do not deceive others. 
  • Principle of lawfulness:do not violate the law. 
  • Principle of autonomy: acknowledge a person's freedom over his/her actions or physical body. 
  • Principle of justice: acknowledge a person's right to due process, fair compensation for harm done, and fair distribution of benefits. 
  • Rights: acknowledge a person's rights to life, information, privacy, free expression, and safety.(Source: The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Ethics): Ethics [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] URL: http://groups.able2know.org/philforum/topic/2812-1
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BIOETHICAL PRINCIPLES

There are four (some believe five) principles to be Understood and used in the process of resolution of conflicts in values.

  • Autonomy.- The concept of autonomy speaks to the positive

obligation physicians bear to enhance the personal autonomy, or personal power of patients

  • Beneficence.-This principle carries the positive obligation of a physician to do good things on behalf of his or her patients.
  • Non-maleficence.- Physicians here assume the (again positive) obligation to avoid doing a bad thing. Traditional medical practitioners are deeply imbued with the admonition. Primum no nocere, latin for "first do no harm".
  • Justice.- Individual justice -speaks to the right or just thing to do for individual patients, with the implicit assumption that the greater good will be served by these collected individual just acts.
  • Distributive justice, on the other hand, speaks to the obligations of physicians to seek out a greater good for a population (or group), with the implicit assumption that more individuals will prosper (in the sense of good health) if the general well being of the community is served.
  • Life.- Some regard life and its preservation as a fundamental principle. By implication, life should be preserved and enhanced at virtually all costs.
a list of bioethical issues
A List of Bioethical Issues
  • A List of Bioethical IssuesAs we mentioned earlier, the term bioethical issue is a broad concept which involves a wide range of medical and biological processes that have been implemented in the field of medicine. While some issues, such as abortion and suicide, are widely criticized, others, such as human cloning and nanomedicine, have left the world divided.Read more at Buzzle: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/bioethical-issues.html
current ethical issues
CurrentEthicalIssues
  • CurrentEthicalIssues
  • http://www.buzzle.com/articles/current-ethical-issues.html
  • Pros and Cons of CloningCloning is the process of creating a copy of a biological entity. In genetics, cloning refers to the process of making an identical copy of the DNA of an organism. I am sure you are one among those interested in understanding the pros and cons of cloning. So read on.
  • Read more at Buzzle: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/pros-and-cons-of-cloning.html
  • Pros of Cloning
pros and cons of cloning
PROS AND CONS OF CLONING

Organ Replacement: If vital organs of the human body can be cloned, they can serve as backup systems for human beings. Cloning body parts can serve as a lifesaver. When a body organ such as a kidney or heart fails to function, it may be possible to replace it with the cloned body organ.Substitute for Natural Reproduction: Cloning in human beings can prove to be a solution to infertility. Cloning can serve as an option for producing children. With cloning, it would be possible to produce certain desired traits in human beings. We might be able to produce children with certain qualities. Wouldn't that be close to creating a man-made being?!Help in Genetic Research: Cloning technologies can prove helpful to researchers in genetics. They might be able to understand the composition of genes and the effects of genetic constituents on human traits, in a better manner. They will be able to alter genetic constituents in cloned human beings, thus simplifying their analysis of genes. Cloning may also help us combat a wide range of genetic diseases.Obtain Specific Traits in Organisms: Cloning can make it possible for us to obtain customized organisms and harness them for the benefit of society. It can serve as the best means to replicate animals that can be used for research purposes. It can enable the genetic alteration of plants and animals. If positive changes can be brought about in living beings with the help of cloning, it will indeed be a boon to mankind.Read more at Buzzle: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/pros-and-cons-of-cloning.html

Cons of CloningLike every coin has two sides, cloning has its flip side too. Though cloning may work wonders in genetics, it has potential disadvantages. Cloning, as you know, is copying or replicating biological traits in organisms. Thus it might reduce the diversity in nature. Imagine multiple living entities like one another! Another con of cloning is that it is not clear whether we will be able to bring all the potential uses of cloning into reality. Plus, there's a big question of whether the common man will afford harnessing cloning technologies to his benefit. Here we look at the potential disadvanatges of cloning.Detrimental to Genetic Diversity: Cloning creates identical genes. It is a process of replicating a genetic constitution, thus hampering the diversity in genes. While lessening the diversity in genes, we weaken our ability of adaptation. Cloning is also detrimental to the beauty that lies in diversity.Invitation to Malpractices: While cloning allows man to tamper with genetics in human beings, it also makes deliberate reproduction of undesirable traits, a probability. Cloning of body organs might invite malpractices in society.Will this Technology Reach the Common Man?: In cloning human organs and using them for transplant, or in cloning human beings themselves, technical and economic barriers will have to be considered. Will cloned organs be cost-effective? Will cloning techniques really reach the common man?Man, a Man-made Being?: Moreover, cloning will put human and animal rights at stake. Will cloning fit into our ethical and moral principles? It will make man just another man-made being. Won't it devalue mankind? Won't it demean the value of human life?Cloning is equal to emulating God. Is that easy? Is that risk-free? Many are afraid it is not!Read more at Buzzle: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/pros-and-cons-of-cloning.html

bioethical principles
BIOETHICAL PRINCIPLES

There are four (some believe five) principles to be Understood and used in the process of resolution of conflictsin values.

  • Autonomy.- The concept of autonomy speaks to the positive

obligation physicians bear to enhance the personal autonomy, or personal power of patients

  • Beneficence.-This principle carries the positive obligation of a physician to do good things on behalf of his or her patients.
  • Non-maleficence.- Physicians here assume the (again positive) obligation to avoid doing a bad thing. Traditional medical practitioners are deeply imbued with the admonition. Primum no nocere, latin for "first do no harm".
  • Justice.- Individual justice-speakstothe right or just thing to do for individual patients, with the implicit assumption that the greater good will be served by these collected individual just acts.
  • Distributive justice, on the other hand, speaks to the obligations of physicians to seek out a greater good for a population (or group), with the implicit assumption that more individuals will prosper (in the sense of good health) if the general well being of the community is served.
  • Life.- Some regard life and its preservation as a fundamental principle. By implication, life should be preserved and enhanced at virtually all costs.
key ethical principles
Key Ethical Principles
  • http://www.ascensionhealth.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=47&Itemid=171