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Types of Chemical Reactions. Types of Chemical Reactions. There are only five (5) different types of chemical reactions: 1) Double Replacement 2) Single Replacement 3) Synthesis 4) Decomposition 5) Combustion. Reaction Type 1 – Double Replacement. Occur between two ionic compounds

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types of chemical reactions1
Types of Chemical Reactions
  • There are only five (5) different types of chemical reactions:
    • 1) Double Replacement
    • 2) Single Replacement
    • 3) Synthesis
    • 4) Decomposition
    • 5) Combustion
reaction type 1 double replacement
Reaction Type 1 – Double Replacement
  • Occur between two ioniccompounds
    • Does not happen with covalent compounds
  • Involves an exchange of cations
  • The cation of one compound trades places with the cation of another compound to form two new compounds
double replacement characteristics
Double Replacement - Characteristics
  • occur in solution when the compounds are in an aqueous state (aq)
    • reactants are either aqueous to begin with, or solid compounds dissolved in water to form an aqueous solution of ions
  • in order to drive the reaction, one of the products must be removed from the aqueous solution
  • this can occur via one of three ways:
double replacement characteristics1
Double Replacement - Characteristics

1) Formation of a precipitate (an insoluble solid forms in the solution)

  • i.e.:

AgNO3 (aq) + NaCl (aq) = NaNO3 (aq) + AgCl (s)

  • Solid silver chloride is formed as precipitate and comes out of the solution
double replacement characteristics2
Double Replacement - Characteristics

2) Formation of a gas

  • i.e.:

FeS (aq) + 2 HCl (aq) = H2S (g) + FeCl2 (aq)

  • Hydrogen sulfide gas is formed and comes out of the solution
double replacement characteristics3
Double Replacement - Characteristics

3) Water is formed when a hydrogen cation unites with a hydroxide anion

  • i.e.:

NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) = HOH (l) + NaCl (aq)

  • Water (HOH) is formed and comes out of the solution
identifying a double replacement reaction
Identifying a Double Replacement Reaction
  • Double replacement reactions always have two ionic compounds on the REACTANTS side
  • *Two compounds react to form two new compounds*
    • AB + CD CB + AD
      • A & C are cations, B & D are anions
      • A & C switch places
single replacement reactions characteristics
Single Replacement Reactions: Characteristics:
  • Atom (s) of a lone element replace the atom (s) of an element in a compound
    • Metals replace metals (or cations replace cations)
    • Non-metals replace non-metals (or anions replace anions)
single replacement reactions characteristics1
Single Replacement Reactions: Characteristics:
  • Metal Cation Replacement:
    • For the reaction:

A + BC  B + AC

    • A and B are cations
    • A “replaces” B in the compound
single replacement reactions characteristics2
Single Replacement Reactions: Characteristics:
  • Non-metal Anion Replacement:
    • For the reaction:

D + EF  ED + F

    • D & F are anions
    • D “replaces” F in the compound
    • Non metal replacements usually involve halogens
single replacement example
Single Replacement Example
  • Thermite
    • Thermite is a reaction that creates molten iron from rust and aluminum powder.
    • This reaction is typically used in certain types of welding (or for just melting stuff)

Fe2O3 + 2 Al → 2 Fe + Al2O3

restrictions on single replacement reactions
Restrictions on Single Replacement Reactions
  • Activity Series:
    • A characteristic of metals and halogens referring to their reactivity
    • Determines whether or not a single replacement reaction will occur or not
    • Metals: on the handout provided there is an activity series of metals arranged in order of decreasing activity
    • Non-metals (Halogens) : as you move down the group on the periodic table activity decreases
restrictions on single replacement reactions1
Restrictions on Single Replacement Reactions
  • A single replacement reaction WILL NOT OCCUR if the reactivity of the pure element reactant is less than that of the compound reactant
    • i.e.:

Sn (s) + NaNO3 (aq) 

    • no reaction b/c tin is less reactive than sodium
restrictions on single replacement reactions2
Restrictions on Single Replacement Reactions
  • A single replacement reaction WILL OCCUR if the reactivity of the pure element reactant is greater than that of the compound reactant
    • i.e.:

Zn (s) + H2SO4 (aq)  ZnSO4 (aq) + H2 (g)

    • Reaction occurs because the reactivity of zinc is higher than hydrogen
identifying single replacement reactions
Identifying Single Replacement Reactions
  • Single replacement reactions ALWAYS have 1 lone element and 1 compound on the reactants side and the products side
  • Reactants will always be:
    • 1 lone element + 1 compound
  • Products will always be:
    • 1 lone element + 1 compound
reaction type 3 decomposition
Reaction Type #3 - Decomposition
  • Occurs when a single compound breaks down into two or more components
  • Energy is required for them to occur
  • Reactants will always be:
    • 1 compound
  • Products will always be:
    • ALWAYS more products than reactants
    • 2 components (either compounds or elements)
  • i.e.:
    • AB  A + B
decomposition example
Decomposition Example:
  • One unit breaks down into its component parts
  • i.e. – Remember N’Sync? They split up leaving the resulting in Justin Timberlake and four guys we don’t remember.
decomposition example1
Decomposition Example

2 H2O2 (aq) → 2 H2O (l) + O2 (g)

  • Hydrogen peroxide naturally decomposes into water and oxygen gas
  • If you have old hydrogen peroxide in your house, it may have turned into a bottle of water
    • Don’t try and drink it though. Obviously.
reaction type 4 synthesis
Reaction Type #4 – Synthesis
  • Occurs when two or more components come together to form one compound
  • Energy is released when these reactions occur
  • Reactants will always be:
    • ALWAYS more reactants than products!
    • 2 or more components (either elements or compounds)
  • Products will always be:
    • 1 single compound
  • i.e.:
    • A + B  AB
synthesis example
Synthesis Example
  • Two individual components coming together to form one unit
  • i.e. – Beyonce & Jay-Z were both awesome on their own, but joined together to become one, even better entity.
special cases for decomposition synthesis reactions
Special Cases for Decomposition & Synthesis Reactions
  • Decomposition and Synthesis Reactions are opposite processes
  • Special Case #1:
    • A non metal oxide + water combine to form an acid
      • i.e.: SO3 + H2O  H2SO4
    • AND an acid will decompose to form a non-metal oxide + water
      • i.e.: H2SO4 SO3 + H2O
special cases for decomposition synthesis formation reactions
Special Cases for Decomposition & Synthesis/Formation Reactions
  • Special Case #2
    • A metal oxide + water combine to form a metal hydroxide
      • i.e.: CaO + H2O  Ca(OH)2
    • A metal hydroxide will decompose into a metal oxide + water
      • i.e.: Ca(OH)2 CaO + H2O
special cases for decomposition synthesis formation reactions1
Special Cases for Decomposition & Synthesis/Formation Reactions
  • Special Case #3:
    • All carbonates decompose into carbon dioxide and an oxide
    • i.e.: CaCO3 CaO + CO2
    • Vice versa for synthesis/formation reactions
  • Special Case #4:
    • All chlorates decompose into oxygen and a binary salt
    • i.e.: KClO3 KCl + O2
    • Vice versa for synthesis/formation reactions
reaction type 5 combustion
Reaction Type #5 - Combustion
  • Also known as burning or explosions
  • Hydrocarbon
    • Compound composed of only carbon and hydrogen and sometimes oxygen
  • Reactants will always be:
    • Hydrocarbon + oxygen
  • Products will always be:
    • Carbon dioxide + water
  • i.e.:
    • C6H6 + O2CO2 + H2O