Preview: Take 5 minutes • On a blank sheet of paper, quickly chart your family tree • Begin with the names of your mother and father’s parents, your grandparents, and work down to you). Off from each of their names, jot a few characteristics of these people. • Below your name, list characteristics you share with them. Here’s my example:
Dr. East, 9/5/2013 Part 1, Unit 1: Detecting the Human Family Tree
Pre-History and the Stone Age • Pre-history is that history that pre-dates the written word. • most of our history was part of the Paleolithic age (literally “old age of stone”, 2.5 million years ago (mya) to 8,000 B.C. • during this time human like creatures evolved from some sort of ancestor that predated us and chimpanzees • Hominids were various kinds of human ancestors that walked upright. • invented tools, • learned how to make fire, and • developed oral languages and spiritual beliefs
Hominids Developed in East Africa from a Common Ancestor http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-family-tree
African Apes and Hominids Shared a Common AncestorSource: http://isombiology.wikispaces.com/10.1+Primates
Hominid and Human Migration from Africa • Occurred between 100,000 – 400,000 years ago
Essential Questions about our Pre-Historic Ancestors: • By what methods do people understand what happened in pre-historic times (i.e., the time before the written word)? • How do we as humans (homo sapiens) compare to other types of hominid relatives? • How did physical geography influence the lives of early humans? • What were the characteristics of hunter-gatherer societies?
Pre-History’s Detectives: Anthropologist • Anthropologist = scientist that that studies anthropology • Anthropology = the scientific study of the origin, the behavior, and the physical, social, and cultural development of humans (can be paleoanthropology or modern anthropology) • “Paleo” simply means old • What is “culture”?
Pre-History’s Detectives: Archaeologist • Archaeologist = scientist and historian that studies archaeology • Archaeology = is the study of human activity in the past, is often described as sub-discipline of anthropology • excavation (digging of sites), • examining artifacts, architecture, bones, and whatever other material evidence is left over that may provide clues to past cultures • What are some examples of artifacts? • Not specifically the study of bones, but scientists will study bones in addition to other things like pottery or tools, etc. • radiometric dating can be used study materials left at excavation sites, ex. carbon can be radiometrically dated • Carbon Dating Explained by Instant Egghead (You tube)
Pre-History’s Detective: Paleontologist • Paleontologist = scientist that studies paleontology • Paleontology = the scientific study of pre-historic or ancient life • often people look for fossils of ancient animals… these are the bone scientists • focus is on animals, plants, and geological surroundings NOT people • For both archaeologists and paleontologists, work done outside and in laboratory
Pre-History’s Detectives: Geneticist • Geneticist = is a biologist who studies genetics • Genetics = the science of genes, heredity, and variation in humans and other organisms. • They try to examine DNA • What would a paleogeneticist do?
Video on “Ardi” • Ardipethecus Ramidus, oldest most complete skeleton of a hominid • Scientists have found other bits and pieces that are older but this is the most complete • Video is from 2009 narrated by Mike Rowe (from reality show Dirty Jobs, video on Discovery Education) • Segment from beginning thru. 23 min. in and then section about what did Ardi looked like.