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Chapter 38. The Stormy Sixties . I. Kennedy’s “New Frontier” Spirit. 1/20/60-Kennedy sworn in Youngest President and Cabinet -Attorney general-Robert Kennedy -many from Harvard C) New Frontier D) Peace Corps-Americans helping third world nations E) Charismatic-vibrant personality.

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chapter 38

Chapter 38

The Stormy Sixties

i kennedy s new frontier spirit
I. Kennedy’s “New Frontier” Spirit
  • 1/20/60-Kennedy sworn in
  • Youngest President and Cabinet

-Attorney general-Robert Kennedy

-many from Harvard

C) New Frontier

D) Peace Corps-Americans helping third world nations

E) Charismatic-vibrant personality

ii new frontier at home
II. New Frontier At Home
  • Increase federal spending for on medical assistance and education-stalled in Congress
  • Steel Industries-raised prices-backed down when Kennedy met with them to keep prices down to stimulate economy
  • Tax cuts-hands in consumer’s pockets
  • July 1969-Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin land on Moon-America is on top, $24 billion later
iii rumblings in europe
III. Rumblings in Europe
  • Berlin Wall-stop East Germans from flooding into West Germany—lasted for 3 decades
  • European Economic Community (Became EU) grew from Marshall Plan
  • Trade Expansion Act of 1962-lower tariffs by up to 50% and increased trade greatly with Europe

D) Charles de Gaulle-no common market-free of Yankee influence

iv foreign flare ups and flexible response
IV. Foreign Flare-ups and Flexible Response
  • Laos-looking to go Communist

-Eisenhower’s dollars failed to rid of guerillas there

-feared Chinese influence

B) Kennedy’s Flexible Response

-avoid humiliation and nuclear war

-create an action to each situation such as using Green Berets (specialized forces) who combat guerilla warfare

v stepping into the vietnam quagmire
V. Stepping into the Vietnam Quagmire
  • Ngo Dinh Diem-increasingly corrupt gov’t

-US money wasted

-tries to implement social programs to encourage S. Vietnamese to have faith in gov’t

-1963-US stages coup and rids of Diem

-increasingly difficult to pull out

-goes against modernization theory that underdeveloped will go democratic if they are modern

vi cuban confrontations
VI. Cuban Confrontations
  • Bay of Pigs4/17/61

-use Cuban exiles to topple Castro

-ultimate failure

-Kennedy took full blame

-income the Soviets with their missiles

B) Cuban Missile Crisis

-US quarantined Cuba and called for immediate removal of missiles (nuclear)

-USSR took them out (revealed in 1991 they had them with soldiers ready to use)

-US removed quietly some missiles from Turkey

-Khrushchev removed from power

C) Alliance for Progress—aid to Latin America-not popular

vii the struggle for civil rights
VII. The Struggle for Civil Rights
  • Kennedy-needed Southern support to pass Civil Rights Legislation but was hoping his medical and education programs would help
  • 1960-Freedom Riders on the rise

-Bus torched in 1960

-Robert Kennedy’s representative beaten in an anti- freedom rider riot

C) Kennedy-MLK Jr. relationship

-SNCC and other Civil Right Groups received funding

-Voter Education Project-educate voters

D) James Meredith, war veteran-registered at Ole Miss-400 federal marshals and 3000 troops to get him in his first class


E) Montgomery AL

-equal populations but 15% AA voters

-peaceful marches led by King

1963-marchers repelled by police with attack dogs, electric cattle prods and high pressure water hoses

-Kennedy-moral issue and use personal and presidential prestige to find solution

F) March on Washington-200k AA’s storm Washington in support of legislation (8/1963)

viii the killing of kennedy
VIII. The Killing of Kennedy
  • Lee Harvey Oswald assassinated Kennedy on November 22, 1963

-Oswald was assassinated by Jack Ruby

-Chief Justice Warren could not quiet theories on assassinations while he led the investigation

B) Lyndon B. Johnson sworn in on airplane and vowed to keep Kennedy’s path

ix the lbj brand on presidency
IX. The LBJ Brand on Presidency
  • LBJ

-Texan, representative than senator

-1955-Senate Majority Leader

-Gave Pope a bust of himself (egotistic!)

-quite liberal

B) Civil Rights Act of 1964

-banned racial discrimination in most private facilities open to the public including hospitals and restaurants

-Equal Employment Opportunity Commission

-enforce racial discrimination with employment

-Title VII-wiped out laws protecting women

C) Affirmative Action-federal contractors had to use it

D) Great Society-LBJ’s program aimed at transforming America’s way of life including war on poverty

-1962-”The Other America” showed 40% of AA’s lived in poverty

x johnson battles goldwater in 1964
X. Johnson Battles Goldwater in 1964
  • Johnson (D) vs. Senator Barry Goldwater (R)

-political battle-two extremes!

B) Gulf of Tonkin

-US and S. Vietnamese doing provocative gun raids

-N. Vietnamese retaliated

C) Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

-blank check by Congress to deal with Vietnam

D) Johnson won with 61% of popular voted taking all but 6 states

xi the great society congress
XI. The Great Society Congress
  • Congress: 2 Dems to 1 Repub

-Office of Economic Opportunity doubled to $2 billion-$1 billion went to Appalachia

B) Created Dept. of Transportation and Dept. of Housing and Urban Development—first black cabinet secretary Robert C. Weaver

C) Loans to students, not schools

D) Medicaid 1965—hurt America’s financial health

E) Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965-removed quota limits

-many from Latin America and Asia took advantage of family unification clause

F) Head start, decrease in poverty and lower infant mortality rates were victories for LBJ’s war on poverty

xii battling for black rights
XII. Battling for Black Rights
  • Freedom Summer of 1964

-blacks still not voting in south

-24th Amendment-no poll tax

-blacks and civil rights workers-try to register blacks to vote

-1 black and 2 white civil rights workers disappeared and bodies found

-21 white people arrested including the sheriff

-jury refused to convict them

B) Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party-refused seats at Democratic Convention

C) Selma, AL-MLK Jr.’s demonstrators wiped out with tear gas, minister killed and a white woman shot by Klansman

D) Voting Rights Act of 1965-outlawed literacy tests and sent federal voter registers to the South----South was never the same

xiii black power
XIII. Black Power
  • 2nd generation of African Americans mocked King Jr.’s peaceful moderation
  • Malcolm X

-Nation of Islam and Elijah Muhammad

-black separatism

-separated himself from the Nation of Islam and shot down by them

C) Black Panther Party

-smash everything Western civilization has created

-black power

-rid of white identities

D) City Riots

-Newark NJ,25 dead

-Detroit MI, 43 dead

-rioting neighborhoods

-economically unequal—double white’s!

E) MLK Jr. Assassinated

-Memphis on April 4th, 1968

-riots surged across country

F) Results

-blacks held office s in old south

-Cleveland and Gary had African American mayors

-schools desegregated

xiv combating communism in two hemispheres
XIV. Combating Communism in Two Hemispheres
  • Dominican Republic

-April 1965-new gov’t-alleged linked to Castro

-25k Americans to restore order-gunboat democracy

B) Viet Cong attacked American air base at Pleiku

-Operation Rolling Thunder-drive out enemy as 184k troops landed in Vietnam

-Vietnam-guerilla warfare

-$30 billion annual war bill

xv vietnam vexations
XV. Vietnam Vexations
  • World saw American involvment as obscene

-France left NATO and removed American troops from France

B) Six Day War-Israel defeated Jordan, Syria and Egypt-gained land in Gaza Strip, West Bank and more Palestinians under Israeli control

C) Domestic Hatred-protests, draftees fleeing to Canada, and conscience of blistering civilians with napalm


D) Senator William Fulbright-televised hearings of antiwar persons

E) Defense Secretary McNamara-removed after questioning war

F) CIA-spy on Americans

G) FBI-used against peace movement

H) Unpopular war growing more unpopular

xvi vietnam topples johnson
XVI. Vietnam Topples Johnson
  • Tet Offensive

-Viet Cong-savage attacks on 27 S. Vietmanese cities

-military loss, political victory-not backing down

-Joint Chiefs of Staff-200k more men

-Johnson-no-keep as is

-1968-Johnson refuses to run again

xvii the presidential sweepstakes of 1968
XVII. The Presidential Sweepstakes of 1968
  • Democrats-Hubert H. Humphrey-Johnson’s VP

-Robert Kennedy-assassinated

B) Republicans-Richard Nixon

C) American Independent-George Wallace

D) Nixon won with 43.4% of popular vote because of the unfair draft, crime and rioting under LBJ

xviii the obituary of lbj
XVIII. The Obituary of LBJ
  • No president did more for blacks other than Lincoln
  • Great Society Programs died with Vietnam
  • Could not provide guns and butter
  • Damned if he took Vietnam farther, damned if he backed off
xix the cultural upheaval of the 1960s
XIX. The Cultural Upheaval of the 1960s
  • Church attendance from 48% to 41%
  • Educated-more secular; uneducated-more religious
  • Free Speech Movement-Berkley-sit in protest against ban on campus for political debate
  • Acid rocks, communes, long haired men, etc..
  • 1968-unrest all throughout the world-France, Columbia University, China and Czechoslovakia

F) Sexual Revolution

-1960-birth control pill

-Stonewall Rebellion

-slowed with STDs and AIDS in the 80s

G) Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)

-spawned underground terrorist group

H) 60s=population bulge of youth, protest against racism and war, and permanence of prosperity