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DNA Replication. An Overview of the Process. Defined…. DNA Replication Prior to dividing, a cell will replicate its DNA to ensure that each new cell has a complete set of DNA molecules. Defined…. DNA Replication

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dna replication

DNA Replication

An Overview of the Process

defined
Defined…
  • DNA Replication
    • Prior to dividing, a cell will replicate its DNA to ensure that each new cell has a complete set of DNA molecules
defined1
Defined…
  • DNA Replication
    • This is when the double helix is separated into 2 separate “template” strands by an enzyme called helicase, so that an enzyme called DNA polymerase can pair free floating bases to the “template” strand forming a new “complimentary” strand, thus duplicating the existing supply of DNA molecules

…whoa

as usual
As usual…
  • Let’s take this one step at a time:
    • When and where does this happen?
    • How are the 2 sides of DNA separated?
    • How is the new DNA made?
the background info
The Background Info:
  • Remember:
    • DNA is the molecule that is made of phosphate groups, deoxyribose sugar groups, and nitrogenous bases organized in a long, double helix shape, and stores our genetic information
    • In other words, our genes are in our DNA
the background info1
The Background Info:
  • Remember:
    • The cell cycle consists of a series of steps:
      • Interphase
        • G1: cell growth
        • S: Chromosome replication/DNA synthesis
        • G2: organelles essential to division are made
      • M Phase
        • Mitosis
          • Prophase
          • Metaphase
          • Anaphase
          • Telophase
        • Cell Division
          • Cytokinesis
when and where
When and Where?
  • Now that we remember that, let’s put it together with what we’re learning about DNA replication…
  • DNA is separated into 2 halves (called 2 separate “strands”) and replicated during the synthesis stage of the cell cycle (called S phase)
  • This occurs while DNA is in the cell’s nucleus
how is dna separated
How is DNA Separated?
  • The 2 sides of the DNA molecule are separated into 2 separate “strands” by an enzyme called helicase
key info
Key Info:
  • An enzyme called helicase?
    • Back up: an enzyme is a protein that acts as a biological catalyst
    • Back up further: a catalyst is a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
    • Put it together: helicase is a substance made of protein that acts during the process of DNA replication
how is dna separated1
How is DNA Separated?
  • As you can see, helicase “unzips” or “unwinds” the double helix of DNA into 2 separate strands by breaking hydrogen bonds between bases
  • You are left with 2 template strands
    • A template strand is a strand of DNA that you can use to build another matching strand, thus making more DNA

replication bubble

how is new dna made
How is New DNA Made?
  • With the 2 template strands separated, we can see how new DNA is made:
  • Another enzyme called DNA Polymerase attaches free floating bases to the template strands following the rules of base pairing
    • (A with T, G with C)
  • Take a look…
how is new dna made2
How is New DNA Made?
  • Better yet, watch this youtube clip!
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