latg c hapters 16 18 l.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
LATG C hapters 16-18 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
LATG C hapters 16-18

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 29

LATG C hapters 16-18 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

LATG C hapters 16-18. Unique Anatomy of Lab Animal Species Gnotobiology Statistics. Mus musculus. • Rapid heart rate (300+/min) and respiration rate (100+/min). • Calcification of the costochondral cartilage. • Functional marrow in long bones for life.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

LATG C hapters 16-18

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
latg c hapters 16 18

LATG Chapters 16-18

Unique Anatomy of Lab Animal Species



mus musculus
Mus musculus

• Rapid heart rate (300+/min) and respiration rate (100+/min)

• Calcification of the costochondral cartilage

• Functional marrow in long bones for life

• Extensive mammary tissue going over back and shoulders

• Esophagus lacks glands, has stratified squamous epithelium and enters stomach in the middle

mus musculus3
Mus musculus

• The pancreas is diffusely spread through the mesentery ( the same is true for rats and hamsters)

• The spleen of males is 50% larger than that of females

• The thymus is thinner than that of other species

• There is a Harderian gland and two accessory lacrimal glands

• Brown fat can be found on the back, neck, and by the kidneys and thymus

rattus norvegicus
Rattus norvegicus

• Rat skeletons continue to grow throughout their life

• Like mice and hamsters, rats have a diffuse pancreas

• The liver has no gall bladder to store bile

• Accessory sex glands include 2 pairs of prostates, paired

seminal vesicles, coagulating glands, ampullary glands,

and bulbourethral glands

rattus norvegicus5
Rattus norvegicus

• Rats have an os penis and open inguinal canals

• Like the mouse, the rat uterus has 2 horns and 2 cervices

• Mature males have larger pituitary and adrenal glands than females

• Like the mouse and hamster, the rat has Harderian glands that can cause chromodachyrrhea

mesocricetus auratus
Mesocricetus auratus
  • Hamsters have large cheek pouches that are immunologically tolerant sites
  • They have sebaceous glands on each flank, behind the rib cage - these are more prominent in males
  • Hamsters have a pre-gastric pouch or diverticulum
  • The adrenal glands of the male are larger than the female, and the male’s spleen is smaller
mesocricetus auratus7
Mesocricetus auratus
  • Male accessory sex glands similar to mice and rats
  • Males have open inguinal canals like mice and rats
  • Females have duplex uterine horns with 2 cervices like mice and rats
  • Harderian gland present like mice and rats
  • Some hamster lines have V-shaped tracheal rings
cavia porcellus
Cavia porcellus
  • Young are precocious with eyes open, teeth erupted, fully furred, able to walk and eat solid food
  • All teeth are open rooted and grow continuously
  • Very large cecum compared to other rodents, ends in cecal appendix
  • Left adrenal long and thin, right one shorter and flat
  • Male penis has papillae and two erectile spines
  • Sex glands, inguinal canal, uterus similar to other rodents
  • Females have ligament allowing separation of pubic syphysis
  • Presence of Kurlhoff bodies in some lymphocytes, and heterophils instead of the normal neutrophils
guinea pig
Guinea pig
  • Palatial ostium covers posterior pharynx
  • Intact vaginal closure membrane
  • Pubic symphsis under control of relaxin
  • Sow must be bred before 8-9 months of age
oryctolagus cuniculus
Oryctolagus cuniculus
  • Two “peg teeth” behind primary incisors
  • Very light weight skeleton (8% BW)
  • Open rooted teeth like guinea pig
  • Cleft lip, papillae on tongue
  • GI tract unique
    • Peyer’s patches
    • Sacculus rotundus
    • cecum ends in vermiform process
    • colon has haustra and taenia coli
    • colon has fusus coli for production of night feces = cecotrophs
oryctolagus cuniculus11
Oryctolagus cuniculus
  • Highly vascularized ears - used for thermoregulation and access for bleeding/injection
  • Right and left AV valves bicuspid
  • Heterophils present as in the guinea pig
  • Male accessory glands include prostate, seminal vesicles, bulbourethral, and ampullary. No coagulating gland, no os penis. Testes in inguinal pouch not in scrotal sac.
  • Each uterine horn has its own cervix, like rodents
  • Rabbits, rats and horses can’t vomit
  • Lagomorphs have two peg teeth
  • Rabbit skeleton is 8% body weight
  • sacculus rotundus located at juncture of cecum and ileum
  • Cecal appendix = vermiform appendix
  • Neutrophils= heterophils
felis catus
Felis catus
  • Cats have 2 additional salivary glands - molar and infraorbital
  • No appendix
  • Anal glands present, as in dogs
  • Kidneys have high fat content making them yellowish in appearance
  • Closed inguinal rings, papillae on penis, only prostate and bulbouretheral glands present in males
  • Single cervix in females
canis familiaris
Canis familiaris
  • Cartilaginous clavicles like cats
  • Esophagus has numerous mucus glands
  • Anal glands
  • Closed inguinal ring, prostate and ampullary gland
  • Small ovaries
nonhuman primates
Nonhuman Primates
  • Prosimians and simians
  • Prosimians include tree shrews, bush babies, lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers
  • Both groups have articulating clavicles, deciduous and permanent teeth, bony eye sockets, a pendulous penis, scrotal testicles, and an opposable thumb
nonhuman primates16

32 permanent teeth

flat skulls, brow ridges, narrow nasal septum, long nostrils

cheek pouches

ischial callosities

non-prehensile tails

better developed opposable thumbs

need Vit C but not D3


36 permanent teeth

rounded skulls, no brow ridges, wide nasal septum, oval nostrils

no cheek pouches

no ischial callosities

prehensile tails

less developed opposable thumbs

need Vit C and Vit D3

Nonhuman Primates
gnotobiology introduction history
  • Gnotobiotics= “known life”
  • Science of keeping animals in a controlled environment; organisms that inhabit body are known
  • Pasteur experiments over 90 years ago (guinea pigs)
  • 1946- first germ-free rat colony
  • 1957-Trexler isolator created
use in research
Use in Research
  • Source of foundation stock to be used in the production of barrier- bred animals ie. SPF, GF, DF
  • Carcinogenesis/mutagenesis
  • Infections/Immunity
  • Nutrition
  • Toxicology, Pharmacology, and Physiology
  • Defined Flora (DF): microflora is totally known
  • Axenic=Germ-free (GF): free of all known organisms; except for its’ own living cells
  • Specific Pathogen Free (SPF): animals free from specified organisms considered pathogenic
  • Conventional: Harboring undefined microfauna
the isolator
The Isolator
  • Components: body, air handling system, entry/exit, operator access
  • Types: Rigid and flexible
  • Must provide - temperature control - # of hours of light/darkness - source of sterile air - means of air exhaust
laminar flow cabinet
Laminar Flow Cabinet
  • Provide slow-moving, linear-flowing, filtered, sterile air
  • Use: Removes airborne microbes, prevents contamination
  • HEPA filtered
sterilization techniques
Sterilization Techniques
  • Steam autoclaving
  • Dry heat
  • Ethylene oxide
  • Gamma irradiation
  • Membrane filtration
gnotobiotic physiologic and anatomic characteristics
Gnotobiotic Physiologic and Anatomic Characteristics
  • Intestinal walls are thin
  • poor muscle development
  • enlarged cecum
  • longer lifespan
  • higher nutritional requirement
  • higher blood cholesterol
  • generally smaller internal organs
caesarian derivation or embryo transfer
Caesarian Derivation or Embryo Transfer
  • Entry of disease free breeders into barrier facility
  • Surgical removal of uterus from time-mated donor animal
  • Uterus passed through dip tank containing germicide into isolator
  • Fetuses removed from uterus
  • Adopted onto donor female-axenic foster mother
  • Microbiologic monitoring of fostered offspring
  • Adm. of normal non-pathogenic intestinal flora- ” Schaedler’s cocktail”
why the need for statistics statistical calculations
Why the Need for Statistics/Statistical Calculations?
  • To draw valid conclusions from data
  • To distinguish differences from random variability
  • To make the strongest possible conclusion from the least amount of data
  • Limitations: No statistical extrapolation
key words
Key Words
  • Hypothesis: assumption of truth
  • Variables (experimental) - dependent: weight, sex , age - independent
  • Randomization
  • Mean- average number
  • Distribution= “normal variation”
  • Bell shaped Curve or Gaussian curve
  • Most of the examples in a set of data are close to average, while few examples are extreme
statistical significance
Statistical Significance
  • Populations are the same or different
  • Accepted margin of error: Results occur less than 5% of time if the populations were really identical.
  • Researcher is 95% sure that results are due to measured data and not normal variation ( 95% confidence level)
  • Minimum number of animals should be used
  • (SS ) does not = biological or clinical significance
standard deviation
Standard Deviation
  • How close the various examples are to the mean in a set of data.
  • Expressed as plus or minus
  • Steep bell shaped curve= small S.D.
  • Wide bell shaped curve= large S.D.