Splash Screen. Globes and Maps Projections Determining Location Reading a Map Physical Maps Political Maps Thematic Maps Geographic Information Systems. GEO HB Menu. Globes and Maps.
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A planar projection shows the Earth centered in such a way that a straight line coming from the center to any other point represents the shortest distance. Also known as an azimuthal projection, it is most accurate at its center. As a result, it is often used for maps of the Poles.Geography Handbook
A conic projection comes from placing a cone over part of a globe. Conic projections are best suited for showing limited east-west areas that are not too far from the Equator. For these uses, a conic projection can indicate distances and directions fairly accurately.Geography Handbook
Lines of latitude, or parallels, circle the Earth parallel to the Equator and measure the distance north or south of the Equator in degrees. The Equator is measured at 0° latitude, while the Poles lie at latitudes 90°N (north) and 90°S (south). Parallels north of the Equator are called north latitude. Parallels south of the Equator are called south latitude.Geography Handbook
Lines of longitude, or meridians, circle the Earth from Pole to Pole. These lines measure distance east or west of the Prime Meridianat 0° longitude. Meridians east of the Prime Meridian are known as east longitude. Meridians west of the Prime Meridian are known as west longitude. The 180° meridian on the opposite side of the Earth is called the International Date Line.Geography Handbook
The Global Grid
Every place has a global address, or absolute location. You can identify the absolute location of a place by naming the latitude and longitude lines that cross exactly at that place. For example, Tokyo, Japan, is located at 36°N latitude and 140°E longitude. For more precise readings, each degree is further divided into 60 units called minutes.Geography Handbook
Northern and Southern Hemispheres
The diagram shows that the Equator divides the Earth into the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Everything north of the Equator is in the Northern Hemisphere. Everything south of the Equator is in the Southern Hemisphere.Geography Handbook
Eastern and Western Hemispheres
The Prime Meridian and the International Date Line divide the Earth into the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. Everything east of the Prime Meridian for 180° is in the Eastern Hemisphere. Everything west of the Prime Meridian for 180° is in the Western Hemisphere.Geography Handbook
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