The modernization of Nanjing government 1928-37
1919-reorganized the GMD (formed in 1912) & Set up military government in Guangzhou. -turned to USSR 1925-Sun died 1926-Northern Expedition 1928-completed the expedition
Results: -some areas still under warlords -northeast occupied by Japanese -Jiangxi controlled by Communists
Evaluation of the modernization efforts Of the Nanjing government
Achievements • Diplomatically • 1. Raising the international status of China • Recovery of foreign concessions • -British returned Hankou, Weihai & Xiamen • -Belgium got Tianjin
2. Resumption of the tariff autonomy and Abolition of unequal treaties -they wanted to abolish the unequal treaties and agreement signed between the Qing government and Foreign powers and replace them with new ones. -the Nanjng government had resumed The tariff autonomy. It was only after WWII That it could abolish all unequal treaties.
3. Cancellation of extra-territorial rights -The Nanjing government strove to cancel The extra-territorial rights enjoyed by the foreign Powers in China, and this was achieved Before the outbreak of the Second World War 1943.
Politically • From military rule to political tutelage • Establishment of a constitutional governments • What are the three stages?
Jiang Jieshi • President • Commander-in-Chief of the Army, Navy and Air Force Jiang Jieshi In 1928, the Guomindang Central Executive Committee (國民黨中央執行委員會) promulgated a provisional constitution entitled ‘An Outline of Political Tutelage’ (訓政綱要).
Sun Yixian The Nanjing government was established according to Sun Yixian’s theory of the ‘Five – Power Constitution’ (五權憲法).
Jiang Jieshi unified China in 1928. Feng Yuxiang (馮玉祥) Yan Xishan (閻錫山) Jiang Jieshi
In 1928, • the Nanjing Government entered • the second stage of Political tutelage. • In May 1936, • the Nanjing government drafted a • Constitution, preparing for the establishment of • A constitutional government. • After the victory, the constitution was approved. • The National Assembly was then opened.
2. The division of government power • five yuans • -executive, legislature, judiciary, civil service • Examinations and supervision of all government • Operations. • 3. Legislation • The Nanjing government also made a series of • Laws. For example, a civic code was passed in • 1929.
President Executive Yuan Control Yuan • the highest organ of administration • consisted of ten ministries and a number of special commissions • similar to the Censorate (都察院) of imperial China • supervised government operations, audited the budget and impeached irresponsible officials Legislative Yuan Judicial Yuan Examination Yuan • composed of 49-99 members • its basic function was to draft legislation • the highest judicial organ of the state • was responsible for conducting different types of government examinations and in charge of civil service ratings The political structure of the Nanjing government
Economically 1. The introduction of new currencies 2. Development of industry 3. Development of agriculture 4. Regulation for economic activities 5. The improvement in transportation And communications 6. Nationwide construction
Banknotes issued by the Central Bank of China The new currency was backed by British pound and American dollar.
4. Developing agriculture The Nanjing government also worked to Increase the output of agriculture products. In 1936, its output of rice and cotton increase Respectively by 6.1% and 12.9% compared With that of 1931. The Nanjing government also considered Carrying out land reforms and setting Up cooperatives. However, the plan left Unfulfilled in the end.
5. Making laws for economic activities/ Regulations for economic activities A series of laws were made in the economic Field, e.g. on the units of measurement, foreign Exchange, setting up of companies and Bankruptcy.
6. Planning nationwide economic construction In 1936, a special committee was established to Set the directions for nationwide economic Modernization. Its achievements, however, Were limited due to the outbreak of war shortly Afterwards.
Socially-improving the social well beings 1. Setting up universities and colleges 2. Promoting free education 3. Cultural development: In 1935, the first batch of simplified Chinese Characters was issued, while the use of Chinese phonetic alphabet was encouraged.
Xiong Qinglai (熊慶來) Wu Youxun (吳有訓) Hou Debang (侯德榜) Li Siguang (李四光) Chinese scientists made many significant discoveries.
4. Prohibition of drugs In 1929, a law was passed to prohibit opium Smoking. Later in 1934, other drugs were banned. 5. The launching of the New Life Movement -politeness, righteousness, integrity, self respect -psychological lift
Jiang Jieshi and Song Meiling Jiang Jieshi and his wife Song Meiling were the main advocates of the New Life Movement. They urged Chinese people to change their ways of live.
Jiang Jieshi and his wife Song Meiling (宋美齡) promoting the New Life Movement in Nanchang (南昌) In 1933, the Nanjing government started the New Life Movement (新生活運動). • to encourage hygienic practices and good habits • to raise public morals
Limitations • Politically • One party dictatorship • 2. Little progress in democracy • -no general elections • -Jiang had the highest authority • “strong on the outside but weak on the • Inside.”
Economically • Monopolizing of economy • Serious corruption • Construction damaged by war • Fiscal imbalance: • -Commercial tax and custom tax • -issue of paper money--overspending
Socially Problems of landlordism remained- -80% people deeply in debt and over-burdenedWith taxes-nationalist officials connection with warlords
Japan A cartoon about Japanese aggression in China in 1932 During the rule of the Nanjing government • spread of communist activities in the 1930s • intensification of Japanese aggression
In a word • China remained weak and divided. • Internal-monarchical movement, no • Genuine democracy, conflict between north • And south, poor livelihood and warlordism • External-foreign aggression • -Japan and other foreign powers • END