Welcome Literacy Across The Curriculum "Train The Trainer" WorkshopVocabulary Presenters: Shirley Cain, Eustacia Lowry-Jones, Marilyn Locklear, Kay Pittman, Linda Price, and Mary Kathryn Stone
Vocabulary Facts "Vocabulary is the most important influence on reading comprehension.""It takes 17 exposures to a word to learn it.""The average child enters school knowing 5,000 – 6,000 words. Children learn 2,500 – 3,000 new words per year."
4 Types of Vocabulary Listening – Words we understand when others talk to us. Speaking – Words we use when we talk to others. Reading – Words we know when we see them in print (sight words and words we can decode). Writing – Words we use when we write.
Vocabulary knowledge is one of the best indicators of verbal ability, reading achievement and success in school. • Teaching vocabulary of a selection can improve students’ comprehension of that selection. • Vocabulary difficulty strongly influences the readability of text. • The use of lexile ranges will ensure that vocabulary is appropriate. • (Beck, et al. 1992). Research on Vocabulary
Lexile Measures www.lexile.com Reminders: • Lexile measures may be found on the EOG score sheet. • This tool should be used as a guide to establish a baseline for each student's reading level. • To increase effectiveness, include ranges that are a little above and a little below the class instructional level.
Activity Time • Individually - Read the selection. • With a partner - • Use the strategy of your choice to define each of the underlined vocabulary words. • Match the words with the definitions from the envelope.
Activity Time • Answers to the exercise • 1. l 4. j 7. a 10. e • 2. k 5. i 8. d 11. c • 3. g 6. h 9. b 12. f • With your group - Discuss the strategies you used and record on chart paper.
The development of strong reading skills is the most effective word learning strategy available. However, those students who are in greatest need of vocabulary acquisition interventions tend to be the same students who read poorly and fail to engage in the amount of reading necessary to learn large numbers of words. • (Beck, et al. 2002). Matthew Effect
Websites • RHL.com • Superteacher.com • Discovery • Cricket • Spider - avg • National Geographic • Click
Studies estimate that of 100 unfamiliar words met in reading, only 5-15 words are learned in context. • Becoming interested and aware of words is not a likely outcome from the way instruction is typically handled, which is to have students look up definitions in a dictionary. • (Scott et al., 1998) Research on Vocabulary
Some students learn an average of 8 words per day. Others learn as little as one or two. • Words can be known at different levels of understanding. • Directly teaching word meanings does not adequately reduce the gap between students with poor versus rich vocabularies. It is crucial for students to learn strategies for learning word meanings independently. • (Miller, 1978). Research on Vocabulary
One study found that out of 4,469 minutes of reading instruction, only 19 minutes were devoted to direct vocabulary instruction. • Another study found that 3rd, 4th and 5th grade teachers spent an average of 1.67 minutes on vocabulary per reading lesson and that many teachers spent no time. Research on Vocabulary
Make effective vocabulary instruction a high priority in the educational system. • Make vocabulary instruction robust, vigorous, strong and powerful to be effective. • Provide multiple ways to process new words. What Can We Do?
Implicit vocabulary acquisition • When students engage in rich extensive oral interactions • When students are read to • When students read and discuss what they’ve read • Explicit vocabulary acquisition • Vocabulary activities specifically designed to teach new words Two Types of Acquisition
Activity Time! • Vocabulary Square is a graphic organizer to analyze, visualize, and define words. • Awareness of various aspects of a word helps students understand and remember it. • Important to know prefixes, roots, and suffixes • Knowledge of word parts adds to student interest. Watch the video Vocabulary Square
Activity Time! • SWAT (Vocabulary Review) • Vocabulary is displayed on chart paper or projected for all to view. • Students are divided into 2 teams. • The teacher calls out a definition or clue. Students swat the correct response.
SWAT Talisman Gingerly Pedant Sauntered Aesthetic Virile Emulate Resplendent Chaff Haberdashery Scintillation Articulate
Provide Multiple Ways to Process New Words • Associate new words with known words. • Match definitions to new words. • Use new words in different contexts. • Use new words in a sentence. • At your table, create a sentence using one of the words from Thoothee. Also, give a synonym.
Introduce new subject matter vocabulary BEFORE students’ initial reading of the new material. • Explain words in terms of relationships –word families, structural analysis, roots and affixes. • Constantly direct students’ attention to the power of words and hints of meaning. When Teaching Vocabulary, DO…
Help the class foster a respect for the well-chosen word and the well-turned phrase. • Teach your students definite forms or patterns for succinctly stating definitions. When Teaching Vocabulary, DO…
Rely solely on incidental approaches; but avoid drill. • Teach roots, affixes in isolation. • Make definitions more difficult than the words to be defined. • Forget the different ways of approaching definitions – analogies, synonyms, antonyms, etc. When Teaching Vocabulary, DO NOT…
Do not give students lists of words to look up in a dictionary under the guise of vocabulary instruction. • This is only dictionary work, not vocabulary instruction. When Teaching Vocabulary, DO NOT…
Scott and Nagy (1997) report the results of many research studies that show that students cannot use conventional definitions to learn words. • Example from dictionary: redress – set right, remedy. “King Arthur tried to redress wrongs in his kingdom” • Student writes: “The redress for getting well when you’re sick is to stay in bed.” Dictionary Use
Incorporate EOG vocabulary as your spelling words each week. • Sparkle, Showdown, KIM Charts • Discovery Probes, just on vocabulary • Flash Cards: Front side – word; back side - definition and example • Bingo: Students use EOG vocabulary to make their own cards. • Games: Eggspert, board games, Jeopardy • Word sorts • PAVE: Predict, Associate, Verify, Evaluate • Example, Pave Map Other Activities
Activity Time! • The Same or Different • Flash Cards with the synonyms or antonyms on one side and S or D on the other.
Jeopardy • Smartboards Activity Time!
Lesson Planning: Preparing Content Area Activities This quick reference guide for preparing vocabulary activities provides content area teachers with a framework for thinking about and planning lessons that embed vocabulary strategies into classroom instruction. Lesson Planning
Activity Time! Group Presentations • Collaborate with your group to demonstrate a vocabulary strategy (that has not previously been mentioned). • Be prepared to present in a whole group setting.
"Websites to Add to Your Favorites" • Glossary of Reading Strategies • The Middle School High Five: Strategies Can Triumph • Doing What Works: Vocabulary • Vocabulary Strategies • WV Vocabulary Strategies • PSRC EOG Word Lists • EOG Resources • Math Word Wall
14 Most Powerful Words for the EOG Tests Infer Analyze Signify Trace Evaluate Formulate Summarize Explain Contrast Compare Predict Support Conclude Describe
Comments • Remember to train your faculty. • PPT at: PSRC Website, Depts., Literacy (Scroll down on left side.) • Literacy Website • Next Training – April 7
Jeopardy Hosted by Kay Pittman
LANGUAGE Do you speak my language? You should know… Language Terms! 100 100 100 100 200 200 200 200 300 300 300 300 400 400 400 400 500 500 500 500
Row 1, Col 1 What is another name for a reading passage? Selection
1,2 Who is the person that writes the selection? Author
1,3 What is to refer to something else like another person or book? Reference
1,4 What is a group of words that show a particular thought? Phrase
2,1 What is a group of sentences that have a common topic? Paragraph
2,2 What are the exact words said by a person? Quotation
2,3 What is the meaning of a word? Definition
2,4 What is a plan for completing a task? Strategy
3,1 What is reading through a selection quickly to find a thought or idea? Skim
3,2 What is looking through a selection to find a single word? Scan
3,3 What is a group of words that are grammatically correct and make a statement or ask a question? Sentence
3,4 What are words that describe a noun? Adjective
4,1 What is words that have the same meaning? Synonyms
4,2 What are words that have opposite meanings? Antonyms