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Step Up To: Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.

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  1. Step Up To: Psychologyby John J. Schulte, Psy.D. PsychologyEighth Edition in Modules By David G. Myers Worth Publishers (2007)

  2. Social Psychology Conform You’ve got an Attitude It’s just natural. Social Thinking Modules Do the right thing. 56 55 57 58

  3. Social Thinking 500 400 300 200 100

  4. You’ve got attitude. 500 400 300 200 100

  5. Conform 500 400 300 200 100

  6. It’s just natural. 500 400 300 200 100

  7. Do the right thing. 500 400 300 200 100

  8. 1. While watching a homeless person beg on the street corner, George thinks, “He must be lazy. If he would just get a job, he wouldn’t have to beg.” It is likely George is illustrating: • A) good judgment. • B) fundamental attribution error. • C) political bias. • D) stereotyping.

  9. 2. Asking for a small favor to increase your chances of being successful when asking for a larger one later is called: • A) bait-and-switch technique. • B) a con-artist strategy. • C) attitude adjustment. • D) the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

  10. 3. Phillip Zimbardo conducted the Stanford Prison Experiment in the 70’s. His results could have predicted problems of prisoner abuse at Abu Ghraib in that: • A) people will follow direct orders of a superior when in the military. • B) when we play a role long enough, social norms can be as powerful as orders. • C) we will easily scapegoat those different from ourselves. • D) people can not resist pressure to perform evil action.

  11. 4. When we experience _____, we feel tension when our actions do not coincide with our beliefs. • A) cognitive dissonance. • B) actor-observer discrepancy. • C) personal perception. • D) self-serving bias.

  12. When we experience cognitive dissonance, the response is most often: • A) to change our behavior to agree with our attitudes. • B) depression and self hatred. • C) to change our attitudes in the direction of our behavior. • D) to feel extremely guilty for acting against our beliefs.

  13. 6. Solomon Asch’s experiment about how perceptions may be influenced by others resulted in: • A) more than a third of the people changing their opinions to agree with others. • B) most people changing their opinions to agree with others. • C) most everyone ignored what others said. • D) a small minority changed their opinions to agree with others.

  14. 7. For teens, it is especially important to dress and act like their peers in order to be accepted by the group. This pressure to conform is called: • A) informational social influence. • B) ethnocentrism. • C) out-group homogeneity. • D) normative social influence.

  15. 8. The results of Milgram’s experiment found: • A) the subjects who continued knew it wasn’t real. • B) most subjects discontinued when shock levels became extreme. • C) most subjects continued to deliver the highest level of shock. • D) subjects had to be threatened to deliver dangerous levels of shock.

  16. 9. Further experiments by Milgram helped to identify factors influencing the outcome of destructive obedience. These included all of the following except: • A) they volunteered to participate. • B) being told the learners were not really being harmed. • C) the repetitive escalation of the task. • D) the situation, or context, in which the obedience occurred.

  17. 10. Milgram did not require his subjects to shock people at the highest level at the beginning, but to build up to it. He used the: • A) cognitive dissonance theory. • B) foot-in-the-door phenomenon. • C) normative social influence. • D) social exchange theory.

  18. 11. According to social facilitation, if you are a professional golfer, you are likely to perform better if: • A) you are playing alone with a friendly audience. • B) no one is watching. • C) you are playing by yourself. • D) you are playing against competition with a friendly audience.

  19. 12. When people are working in a group on a project rather than individually, there is likely to be less effort by some, called: • A) social loafing. • B) competition. • C) self-serving bias. • D) cognitive dissonance.

  20. 13. When a group’s goal of harmony takes precedence over rational decision-making, they become involved in the process of: • A) social cognition. • B) group polarization. • C) group think. • D) fundamental attribution error.

  21. 14. An example of group polarization is: • A) conservatives become more extreme after listening to conservative talk radio. • B) people believing they were abducted become more convinced after chatting on the internet with other abductees. • C) prejudiced individuals get together and become more prejudiced. • D) all of the above.

  22. 15. When people lose themselves when in an angry mob, this illustrates the process of: • A) self-serving bias. • B) deindividuation. • C) group think. • D) actor-observer discrepancy.

  23. 16. Prejudice is defined as: • A) taking negative action toward people who belong to a different social group. • B) speaking badly about people who belong to a different social group. • C) an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members. • D) all of the above.

  24. 17. The _____ theory offers an explanation that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame. • A) scapegoat • B) prejudice • C) underdog • D) out-group

  25. 18. Rape victims are sometimes blamed for wearing too revealing clothes and, “getting what they deserved.” This false conclusion is based on: • A) the just-world hypothesis. • B) fundamental attribution error. • C) social categorization. • D) social exchange theory.

  26. 19. Recent experiments of men viewing violent pornography conclude: • A) this can serve to provide an outlet for bottled-up feelings, thus reducing violent acts. • B) this increases violent acts toward women. • C) there is no effect from viewing violent pornography. • D) men viewing such films are quickly repulsed by such images.

  27. 20. “By pursuing our own self-interests and not trusting others, we can end up losers.” This statement is illustrated in: • A) the Jigsaw Classroom. • B) the in-group, out-group study. • C) Zimbardo’s prison experiment. • D) the social trap game.

  28. 21. The deep, affectionate attachment in a lasting, mature love is called: • A) passionate love. • B) marital bliss. • C) companionate love. • D) altruism.

  29. 22. Your text mentions two key ingredients to a lasting, loving relationship. One is equity, the other is: • A) attractiveness. • B) compassion. • C) self-disclosure. • D) acceptance.

  30. 23. Kitty Genovese was killed while others watched and listened. They knew others were watching. Their behavior is explained the: • A) apathy theory. • B) prosocial behavior phenomenon. • C) altruism. • D) bystander effect.

  31. 24: According to the bystander effect, if you needed help you would be more likely to get it if: • A) many people were present. • B) few people were present. • C) someone else was also helping. • D) no one knew you.

  32. 25. According to social exchange theory: • A) we will help if we expect something in return. • B) we will help if the cost of helping is not too high. • C) when we help others we expect them to help us. • D) we help those who we feel are most deserving.

  33. Congratulations!

  34. Answers Stop here, or continue as a review

  35. 1. While watching a homeless person beg on the street corner, George thinks, “He must be lazy. If he would just get a job, he wouldn’t have to beg.” It is likely George is illustrating: • A) good judgment. • B) fundamental attribution error. • C) political bias. • D) stereotyping. 729

  36. 2. Asking for a small favor to increase your chances of being successful when asking for a larger one later is called: • A) bait-and-switch technique. • B) a con-artist strategy. • C) attitude adjustment. • D) the foot-in-the-door phenomenon. 730

  37. 3. Phillip Zimbardo conducted the Stanford Prison Experiment in the 70’s. His results could have predicted problems of prisoner abuse at Abu Ghraib in that: • A) people will follow direct orders of a superior when in the military. • B) when we play a role long enough, social norms can be as powerful as orders. • C) we will easily scapegoat those different from ourselves. • D) people can not resist pressure to perform evil action. 732

  38. 4. When we experience _____, we feel tension when our actions do not coincide with our beliefs. • A) cognitive dissonance. • B) actor-observer discrepancy. • C) personal perception. • D) self-serving bias. 733

  39. When we experience cognitive dissonance, the response is most often: • A) to change our behavior to agree with our attitudes. • B) depression and self hatred. • C) to change our attitudes in the direction of our behavior. • D) to feel extremely guilty for acting against our beliefs. 734

  40. 6. Solomon Asch’s experiment about how perceptions may be influenced by others resulted in: • A) more than a third of the people changing their opinions to agree with others. • B) most people changing their opinions to agree with others. • C) most everyone ignored what others said. • D) a small minority changed their opinions to agree with others. 737

  41. 7. For teens, it is especially important to dress and act like their peers in order to be accepted by the group. This pressure to conform is called: • A) informational social influence. • B) ethnocentrism. • C) out-group homogeneity. • D) normative social influence. 738

  42. 8. The results of Milgram’s experiment found: • A) the subjects who continued knew it wasn’t real. • B) most subjects discontinued when shock levels became extreme. • C) most subjects continued to deliver the highest level of shock. • D) subjects had to be threatened to deliver dangerous levels of shock. 740

  43. 9. Further experiments by Milgram helped to identify factors influencing the outcome of destructive obedience. These included all of the following except: • A) they volunteered to participate. • B) being told the learners were not really being harmed. • C) the repetitive escalation of the task. • D) the situation, or context, in which the obedience occurred. 741

  44. 10. Milgram did not require his subjects to shock people at the highest level at the beginning, but to build up to it. He used the: • A) cognitive dissonance theory. • B) foot-in-the-door phenomenon. • C) normative social influence. • D) social exchange theory. 742

  45. 11. According to social facilitation, if you are a professional golfer, you are likely to perform better if: • A) you are playing alone with a friendly audience. • B) no one is watching. • C) you are playing by yourself. • D) you are playing against competition with a friendly audience. 743

  46. 12. When people are working in a group on a project rather than individually, there is likely to be less effort by some, called: • A) social loafing. • B) competition. • C) self-serving bias. • D) cognitive dissonance. 744

  47. 13. When a group’s goal of harmony takes precedence over rational decision-making, they become involved in the process of: • A) social cognition. • B) group polarization. • C) group think. • D) fundamental attribution error. 746

  48. 14. An example of group polarization is: • A) conservatives become more extreme after listening to conservative talk radio. • B) people believing they were abducted become more convinced after chatting on the internet with other abductees. • C) prejudiced individuals get together and become more prejudiced. • D) all of the above. 746

  49. 15. When people lose themselves when in an angry mob, this illustrates the process of: • A) self-serving bias. • B) deindividuation. • C) group think. • D) actor-observer discrepancy. 744

  50. 16. Prejudice is defined as: • A) taking negative action toward people who belong to a different social group. • B) speaking badly about people who belong to a different social group. • C) an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members. • D) all of the above. 749