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Cucurbit Downy Mildew – Final Report. Student Author - Anonymous. Project overview. Images courtesy of http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/plantpath/extension/fact\_sheets/Cucurbits\_-\_Downy\_Mildew.htm. Image courtesy of http://www.apsnet.org/publications/apsnetfeatures/Pages/DownyMildew.aspx . policy.

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cucurbit downy mildew final report
Cucurbit Downy Mildew – Final Report

Student Author - Anonymous

project overview
Project overview

Images courtesy of http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/plantpath/extension/fact_sheets/Cucurbits_-_Downy_Mildew.htm

Image courtesy of http://www.apsnet.org/publications/apsnetfeatures/Pages/DownyMildew.aspx

policy
policy
  • Resistant Cultivars
  • Fungicides
  • Growing Methods

http://www.hort.cornell.edu/hightunnel/crops/vegetables/cucurbits.htm

http://ag.arizona.edu/aes/yac/research.html

slide4
data
  • Disease Count in NC
  • El Nino Southern Oscillation
  • Pacific – North American Pattern
  • North Atlantic Oscillation
  • Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation
  • Atlantic Meridional Mode
  • Atlantic SST Dipole Mode
indices 1
Indices 1

PNA, R = 0.11

NAO, R = -0.19

AMO, R = 0.19

indices 2
Indices 2

AMM, R = -0.12

DM, R = 0.02

ENSO, R = 0.08

slide13
eofs

http://climlab.meas.ncsu.edu/EPA-Project1/Wind_Composite/index_prec.html

composites
composites

http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/cgi-bin/data/composites/printpage.pl

composites1
Composites

http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/cgi-bin/data/composites/printpage.pl

models and projections
Models and projections
  • ENSO
    • Modelling
      • Steady progress
      • Still systematic errors
    • Projections
      • No change expected in frequency
      • Range of possibilities in strength
models and projections1
Models and projections
  • PNA and NAO
    • PNA SST dependent
    • NAO not fully understood
    • Good skill Short time scale, winter
    • Skill drops as time increase
    • NAO possible positive increase
models and projections2
Models and projections
  • AMO, AMM and DM
    • Influenced by Atlantic SST
    • Little information
    • Recent Oceanic improvements
    • Still many issues
    • Thermohaline
implications
implications
  • Current ENSO forecasts
    • Seasonal indication
  • Future ENSO forecasts
    • Awareness of changes in strength
  • Future PNA and NAO forecasts
    • Prediction possibilities
  • NAO increase
    • Increase in positive phases
  • Future AMM, AMO and DM
    • More study needed
recommendations
recommendations
  • Resistant cultivars - whenever possible
  • Growing methods
    • good years
      • spacing can be closer together,
      • less suitable ground can be planted,
      • overhead irrigation can be used.
    • bad years
      • larger spaces between plants,
      • less suitable ground should not be used
      • overhead irrigation should be used sparingly.
recommendations1
recommendations
  • Chemical Control
    • Good years
      • cheaper contact fungicides
      • Less frequently sprayed
    • Bad years
      • Systemic fungicides
      • More frequently sprayed
conclusions
Conclusions
  • ENSO, PNA, NAO and DM all influence
  • Recommendations given
    • More useful when predictions improve
  • More data needed
  • Other influences and indices to be considered
references
references
  • Austin Bourke, P. M. (1964). Emergence of potato blight, 1843-46. Nature, 203, 805-808.
  • Becker, R and Miller, S., A., (2009), Managing Downy Mildew in Organic and Conventional Vine Crops, Ohio State Fact Shhet – Agricultural and Natural Resources, http://ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/3000/pdf/3127.pdf
  • Brown, J. K., & Hovmøller, M. S. (2002). Aerial dispersal of pathogens on the global and continental scales and its impact on plant disease. Science, 297(5581), 537-541.
  • Colucci, S.J. and G.J. Holmes. 2010. Downy Mildew of Cucurbits. The Plant Health Instructor. DOI: 10.1094/PHI-I-2010-0825-01, http://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/intropp/lessons/fungi/Oomycetes/Pages/Cucurbits.aspx
  • Colucci S.J. & G.J. Holmes, (2007). Cucurbits – Downy Mildew, NC State University- Department of Plant Pathology, http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/plantpath/extension/fact_sheets/Cucurbits_-_Downy_Mildew.htm accessed on 18/03/2013
  • Crop Science, (2001), Downy Mildew of Cucurbits, University of Illinois Extension – report on Plant Disease, http://web.aces.uiuc.edu/vista/pdf_pubs/927.PDF
  • Dominguez, F., Cañon, J., & Valdes, J. (2010). IPCC-AR4 climate simulations for the Southwestern US: the importance of future ENSO projections. Climatic Change, 99(3-4), 499-514.
  • Egel, D., (2008), Downy Mildew of Pumpkin, Purdue Extension – Vegetable Diseases, http://www.extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/BP/BP-140-W.pdf
  • Ivors, K.L. & Mila, A.L., (2007), Tobacco – Blue Mold, NC State University- Department of Plant Pathology, http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/plantpath/extension/fact_sheets/Tobacco_-_Blue_Mold.htm accessed on 17/03/2013
  • IPCC (2007) – the following three chapters were used.
  • Chapter 6: Jansen, E., J. Overpeck, K.R. Briffa, J.-C. Duplessy, F. Joos, V. Masson-Delmotte, D. Olago, B. Otto-Bliesner, W.R. Peltier, S. Rahmstorf, R. Ramesh, D. Raynaud, D. Rind, O. Solomina, R. Villalba and D. Zhang, 2007: Palaeoclimate. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
  • Chapter 8: Randall, D.A., R.A. Wood, S. Bony, R. Colman, T. Fichefet, J. Fyfe, V. Kattsov, A. Pitman, J. Shukla, J. Srinivasan, R.J. Stouffer, A. Sumi and K.E. Taylor, 2007: Cilmate Models and Their Evaluation. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA
  • Chapter 10: Meehl, G.A., T.F. Stocker, W.D. Collins, P. Friedlingstein, A.T. Gaye, J.M. Gregory, A. Kitoh, R. Knutti, J.M. Murphy, A. Noda, S.C.B. Raper, I.G. Watterson, A.J. Weaver and Z.-C. Zhao, 2007: Global Climate Projections. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
  • Johansson, Å. (2007). Prediction skill of the NAO and PNA from daily to seasonal time scales. Journal of climate, 20(10), 1957-1975.
  • Keeling, M. J., Woolhouse, M. E., Shaw, D. J., Matthews, L., Chase-Topping, M., Haydon, D. T. & Grenfell, B. T. (2001). Dynamics of the 2001 UK foot and mouth epidemic: stochastic dispersal in a heterogeneous landscape. Science, 294(5543), 813-817.
  • Mack, R. N., Simberloff, D., Mark Lonsdale, W., Evans, H., Clout, M., & Bazzaz, F. A. (2000). Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecological applications, 10(3), 689-710.
  • Main, C. E., Keever, T., Holmes, G. J., & Davis, J. M. (2001). Forecasting long-range transport of downy mildew spores and plant disease epidemics. American Phytological Society Net (APSnet). (http://www.apsnet.org/publications/apsnetfeatures/Pages/DownyMildew.aspx)
  • Ojiambo, P. S., & Holmes, G. J. (2011). Spatiotemporal spread of cucurbit downy mildew in the eastern United States. Phytopathology, 101(4), 451-461.
  • Ojiambo, P. S., Holmes, G. J., Britton, W., Keever, T., Adams, M. L., Babadoost, M., Bost, S. C., Boyles, R., Brooks, M., Damicone, J., Draper, M. A., Egel, D. S., Everts, K. L., Ferrin, D. M., Gevens, A. J., Gugino, B. K., Hausbeck, M. K., Ingram, D. M., Isakeit, T., Keinath, A. P., Koike, S. T., Langston, D., McGrath, M. T., Miller, S. A., Mulrooney, R., Rideout, S., Roddy, E., Seebold, K. W., Sikora, E. J., Thornton, A., Wick, R. L., Wyenandt, C. A., and Zhang, S.(2011). Cucurbit downy mildew ipmPIPE: A next generation web-based interactive tool for disease management and extension outreach. Online. Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2011-0411-01-RV.
  • Semazzi, F., H, Bowden, J., and Davis, N., (2008) An Urban-Scale AQ Planning Tool for Global Change Adaptation NARR EOF Ananlysis, EPA Report.
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