Chapter 13: Treating Psychological Disorders - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 13: Treating Psychological Disorders

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  1. Chapter 13: Treating Psychological Disorders Amber Gilewski Tompkins Cortland Community College

  2. Psychological Treatment Who seeks it? Typical sequence of steps Assessment Diagnosis Treatment • 15% of U.S. population in a given year • Most common presenting problems • Anxiety and Depression • Women more than men • Medical insurance • Education level

  3. Figure 15.2 Therapy utilization rates

  4. Who Provides Treatment? • Clinical psychologists: doctorate degree • Counseling psychologists: doctorate degree • Psychiatrists: medical doctors • Clinical social workers: master’s degree • Psychiatric nurses: bachelor’s/master’s degree • Counselors: master’s degree

  5. Psychological Approach: Psychoanalysis • Sigmund Freud and followers • Goal: discover unresolved unconscious conflicts • Free association: spontaneously expressing thoughts • Dream analysis: interpreting our unconscious thoughts • Interpretation: understanding the inner meaning • Resistance – unconscious ways of hindering therapy • Transference – unconsciously relating to therapist in a similar way to key relationships in one’s life

  6. Psychological Approach: Person-Centered Therapy • Carl Rogers – humanistic perspective • Goal: restructure self-concept to better correspond to reality • Therapeutic Climate • Genuineness • Unconditional positive regard • Empathy

  7. Psychological Approach:Behavior Therapies • B.F. Skinner and colleagues • Goal: unlearning maladaptive behavior and learning adaptive ones • Systematic Desensitization – Joseph Wolpe – reducing phobic anxiety behavior • Classical conditioning • Anxiety hierarchy • Aversion therapy • Alcoholism, sexual deviance, smoking, etc. • Social skills training • Modeling • Behavioral rehearsal

  8. Psychological Approach:Cognitive Therapy orCognitive-Behavioral Therapy • Aaron Beck • Cognitive therapy • Albert Ellis • Rational emotive behavior therapy • Goal: to change the way clients think • Identify incorrect or distorted beliefs • Detect and recognize negative thoughts • Reality testing • Kinship with behavior therapy

  9. Social Approach:Group Therapies • Advantages • Economical • More experiences for client to draw upon • Social support of the group • Disadvantages • Unable to express feelings to group • Couple therapy • Family therapy

  10. Biomedical Therapies • Psychopharmacotherapy • Antianxiety - Valium, Xanax, Buspar • Antipsychotic - Thorazine, Mellaril, Haldol • Tardive dyskinesia • Clozapine – newer medication • Antidepressants: • Tricyclics – Elavil, Tofranil • Mao inhibitors (MAOIs) - Nardil • Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) – Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft • Mood stabilizers • Lithium • Valproic acid

  11. Biomedical Therapies • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): electric shock used to induce seizures/convulsions - unsure why it works - last resort treatment - controversial • Psychosurgery (i.e. lobotomies) - rarely used - refined versions used today • Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) - newer treatment; stimulates brain electrically