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Chapter 18---Psychological Disorders

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  1. Chapter 18---Psychological Disorders

  2. What are Psychological disorders? • Behaviors patterns or mental process that cause serious personal suffering or interfere with a person’s ability to cope with everyday life. • 1/3 of all adults have experienced some type of psychological disorder.

  3. Identifying and symptoms

  4. What is normal? • What is average for most people? • Laughing/ too much at nothing.

  5. Problems with defining psych disorders • The behavior of the majority is not always wise or healthy • Some Atypical behaviors are eccentric (artistic geniuses) rather than indicative of a disorder • People with psych disorders usually do not differ much from “normal” people

  6. Symptoms Typically • what is most common • not a good guide

  7. MaladaptivE • impairs an individual’s ability to function in everyday life. • hazardous to oneself or others • alcohol and drug use

  8. Emotional discomfort • anxiety and depression • feelings of hopelessness, extreme sadness, worthlessness, • Guilt, thought of suicide • severe emotional discomfort

  9. Socially unacceptable behavior • violates society’s accepted norms • cultural differences a problem

  10. Classifying psychological disorders • Change with each edition of the DSM or diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders • The 3rd DSM edition in 1980 psychological disorders have been categorized on the basis of observable signs and symptoms rather than presumed causes.

  11. Answer these questions • Identify three problems with defining normal behaviors as the behavior displayed by the majority of people. • How have the criteria for the classisification of psychological disorders been arranged since 1980’s? • Give an example of a feeling or a behavior that would be considered normal in one circumstance but a sign of psychological disorder in a different circumstance.

  12. Chapter 18section 2 Anxiety Disorders

  13. Anxiety disorders • A state of dread or uneasiness in response to a vague/ imagined danger

  14. Characterized • by Persistent, • excessive, • irrational fear, • nervousness, • concern for lost of control, • inability to relax

  15. Physical signs- • trembling, • sweating, • rapid heart rate, • shortness of breath, • increase blood pressure, • flushed face, • feeling of faintness/ light head

  16. Phobic disorders (most common) • Persistent, excessive, irrational fear, of a object or situation Most common Types • zoophobia—fear of animals • claustrophobia—enclosed spaces • acrophobia---heights • arachnophobia---spiders

  17. Social phobia- fear of social situations • Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia (50-80% of phobic individuals) • Panic attack (recurring and unexpected) • a short period of intense fear (1 min – few hours) • shortness of breath, dizziness, rapid hart rate, sweating, choking, nausea, trembling, shaking, • going to die for no apparent reason

  18. fear of being in places/ situations in which Impossible to escape • have panic attack by avoiding behaviors • excessive or unrealistic worry about life circumstances that lasts for at least 6 months • common anxiety disorder • typically focus on finances, work, interpersonal problems, accidents or illness Agoraphobia (common among adults) Generalized anxiety disorder

  19. Obsessions --unwanted thoughts ideas or mental images. • Compulsions---- repetitive ritual behaviors • cleaner, checkers, washers, Hoarders, repeaters, orderers. Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD)

  20. Post-traumatic stress disorder---caused by a traumatic experience. • flash back, nightmares, numbness of • feelings, avoidance increased tension • causes- rape, severe child abuse, assault, serve accident, airplane crash, natural disasters, war experiences

  21. Psychological view • Psychoanalytic view • Anxiety is the result of forbidden childhood urges that have been repressed. • When surfaced may become obsessions and compulsive behaviors

  22. Learning view Cognitive • Phobias are conditioned or learned in childhood • May occur from traumatic events • People make themselves feel anxious by responding negatively to most situations • Feel helpless to control what happens to them

  23. Biological views • Heredity plays a role in most psychological disorders • Interaction factors- • both bio and psych together

  24. Section 2 review • How does anxiety differ from fear? • Describe the relationship between panic disorder and agoraphobia. • Explain why studies of twins are important for determining whether a disorder has a biological basis.

  25. Chapter 18 section 3 DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS



  28. 1. Dissociative amnesia • Characterized by sudden lost of memory following a stressful or traumatic event • Typically can’t remember any events that occurred for a certain period of time surrounding the traumatic event • May forget all prior experiences, personal information, own name, family and friends • May last a few hours or years • No biologically explanation.

  29. 2. Dissociative Fugue • Characterized by forgetting personal information and past events • Taking on a new identity relocating from home and new career • Usually follows a traumatic event • When fugue ends will not remember anything during the fugue state

  30. 3.Dissociative Identity Disorder • Formerly called multiple personality disorder • Existence of 2 or more personalities • Personalities may or may not be aware of each other • Personality: different (age, sex, health) • Typically have suffered severe physical, sexual, and/or psychological abuse.

  31. Depersonalization Disorders • Feeling of detachment from one’s mental processes or body. • Feeling outside of your body/ observing yourself • Common with other disorders • Stressful event

  32. Explaining Dissociative Disorders

  33. Psychological view • Dissociate in order to prepress unacceptable urges • Dissociative amnesia or fugue – forgets the disturbing urges • Dissociative identity –develops- new personalities to take responsibility • Depersonalization-goes outside of self away from the turmoil within

  34. Learning View • Have learned not to think about disturbing events in order to avoid shame, guilt, and pain • Dissociate themselves from stressful event • Reinforced by reduces anxiety when trauma is forgotten

  35. Cognitive / biological view • No complete explanation as of yet • At present there is no convincing evidence that either biological or genetic factors play a role

  36. Section 3 questions 1.Describe the four dissociative disorders. 2. In some cultures people are encouraged to go into trance like states. Should this type of dissociation be considered a sign of a psychological disorder? Why or why not?

  37. Chapter 18 section 4 Somatoform Disorders

  38. Somatoform Disorders • Expression of psychological distress through physical symptoms • Psychological problem along with physical (paralysis)

  39. Malingering • The conscious attempt to FAKE an illness in order to avoid work, school, or other responsibilities • People with somatoform disorders do not fake their illness. • Honestly feel pain and paralysis

  40. 6 Types of Somatoform Disorders 2 most common Conversion disorder and Hypochondria

  41. Conversion Disorder • Experience change in or loss of physical functioning in a major part of the body • No known medical explanation • Patient show little or no concern about their symptoms.

  42. hypochondria • Person’s unrealistic preoccupation with thoughts of illness or disease. • Maintains their erroneous belief despite medical doctor

  43. Explaining Somatoform Disorders Psychological view • Primarily psychological • Repressing emotions associated with forbidden urges/ expressed in physical symptoms • Compromise unconscious need to express feelings and fear of expressing them

  44. Biological view • Indications that biological and genetic factors involved.

  45. Section 4 • Define malingering. How does somatization differ from malingering? • How do conversion disorder and hypochondriasis differ? • How do you think learning theorists might explain somatoform disorders? Do you agree with this type of explanation? Why or Why not?

  46. Section 5Mood Disorders

  47. Normal ups and downs • Everyone experience life's ups/downs • Some people experience mood changes that seem inappropriate for or inconsistent with the situation to which they are responding. • Life is good= sadness • Elated for no apparent reason • Abnormal moods like these, you may have a mood disorder.

  48. 2 general categories • Depression • Feeling of helplessness, hopelessness, worthlessness, guilt, and great sadness • Bipolar disorder • Cycles of mood changes • Depression----wild elation

  49. 7 types of mood disorders divided into Depressive and bipolar disorders

  50. Major Depression-most common • Must experience at least 5 of the following 9 symptoms for 2 wks/every day • Depressed mood for most of the day • Loss of interest pleasure in all things • Weight loss/ gain • Sleep more / less • Change in physical and emotional reactions • Fatigue/ loss of energy • Feeling worthless/ guilty • Inability to concentrate/ make decisions • Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide