What are Psychological disorders? • Behaviors patterns or mental process that cause serious personal suffering or interfere with a person’s ability to cope with everyday life. • 1/3 of all adults have experienced some type of psychological disorder.
What is normal? • What is average for most people? • Laughing/ too much at nothing.
Problems with defining psych disorders • The behavior of the majority is not always wise or healthy • Some Atypical behaviors are eccentric (artistic geniuses) rather than indicative of a disorder • People with psych disorders usually do not differ much from “normal” people
Symptoms Typically • what is most common • not a good guide
MaladaptivE • impairs an individual’s ability to function in everyday life. • hazardous to oneself or others • alcohol and drug use
Emotional discomfort • anxiety and depression • feelings of hopelessness, extreme sadness, worthlessness, • Guilt, thought of suicide • severe emotional discomfort
Socially unacceptable behavior • violates society’s accepted norms • cultural differences a problem
Classifying psychological disorders • Change with each edition of the DSM or diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders • The 3rd DSM edition in 1980 psychological disorders have been categorized on the basis of observable signs and symptoms rather than presumed causes.
Answer these questions • Identify three problems with defining normal behaviors as the behavior displayed by the majority of people. • How have the criteria for the classisification of psychological disorders been arranged since 1980’s? • Give an example of a feeling or a behavior that would be considered normal in one circumstance but a sign of psychological disorder in a different circumstance.
Chapter 18section 2 Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety disorders • A state of dread or uneasiness in response to a vague/ imagined danger
Characterized • by Persistent, • excessive, • irrational fear, • nervousness, • concern for lost of control, • inability to relax
Physical signs- • trembling, • sweating, • rapid heart rate, • shortness of breath, • increase blood pressure, • flushed face, • feeling of faintness/ light head
Phobic disorders (most common) • Persistent, excessive, irrational fear, of a object or situation Most common Types • zoophobia—fear of animals • claustrophobia—enclosed spaces • acrophobia---heights • arachnophobia---spiders
Social phobia- fear of social situations • Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia (50-80% of phobic individuals) • Panic attack (recurring and unexpected) • a short period of intense fear (1 min – few hours) • shortness of breath, dizziness, rapid hart rate, sweating, choking, nausea, trembling, shaking, • going to die for no apparent reason
fear of being in places/ situations in which Impossible to escape • have panic attack by avoiding behaviors • excessive or unrealistic worry about life circumstances that lasts for at least 6 months • common anxiety disorder • typically focus on finances, work, interpersonal problems, accidents or illness Agoraphobia (common among adults) Generalized anxiety disorder
Obsessions --unwanted thoughts ideas or mental images. • Compulsions---- repetitive ritual behaviors • cleaner, checkers, washers, Hoarders, repeaters, orderers. Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD)
Post-traumatic stress disorder---caused by a traumatic experience. • flash back, nightmares, numbness of • feelings, avoidance increased tension • causes- rape, severe child abuse, assault, serve accident, airplane crash, natural disasters, war experiences
Psychological view • Psychoanalytic view • Anxiety is the result of forbidden childhood urges that have been repressed. • When surfaced may become obsessions and compulsive behaviors
Learning view Cognitive • Phobias are conditioned or learned in childhood • May occur from traumatic events • People make themselves feel anxious by responding negatively to most situations • Feel helpless to control what happens to them
Biological views • Heredity plays a role in most psychological disorders • Interaction factors- • both bio and psych together
Section 2 review • How does anxiety differ from fear? • Describe the relationship between panic disorder and agoraphobia. • Explain why studies of twins are important for determining whether a disorder has a biological basis.
Chapter 18 section 3 DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS
DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS • REFERS TO THE SEPARATION OF CERTAIN PERSONILITY COMPPONENTS OR MENTAL PROCESSES FORM CONSCIOUS THOUGHT. • MAY LOSE THEIR MEMORY OF A PARTICULAR EVENT OR FORGET THEIR IDENTITY • OCCURS WHEN FACED WITH URGES OR EXPERIENCES THAT VERY STRESSFUL
1. Dissociative amnesia • Characterized by sudden lost of memory following a stressful or traumatic event • Typically can’t remember any events that occurred for a certain period of time surrounding the traumatic event • May forget all prior experiences, personal information, own name, family and friends • May last a few hours or years • No biologically explanation.
2. Dissociative Fugue • Characterized by forgetting personal information and past events • Taking on a new identity relocating from home and new career • Usually follows a traumatic event • When fugue ends will not remember anything during the fugue state
3.Dissociative Identity Disorder • Formerly called multiple personality disorder • Existence of 2 or more personalities • Personalities may or may not be aware of each other • Personality: different (age, sex, health) • Typically have suffered severe physical, sexual, and/or psychological abuse.
Depersonalization Disorders • Feeling of detachment from one’s mental processes or body. • Feeling outside of your body/ observing yourself • Common with other disorders • Stressful event
Psychological view • Dissociate in order to prepress unacceptable urges • Dissociative amnesia or fugue – forgets the disturbing urges • Dissociative identity –develops- new personalities to take responsibility • Depersonalization-goes outside of self away from the turmoil within
Learning View • Have learned not to think about disturbing events in order to avoid shame, guilt, and pain • Dissociate themselves from stressful event • Reinforced by reduces anxiety when trauma is forgotten
Cognitive / biological view • No complete explanation as of yet • At present there is no convincing evidence that either biological or genetic factors play a role
Section 3 questions 1.Describe the four dissociative disorders. 2. In some cultures people are encouraged to go into trance like states. Should this type of dissociation be considered a sign of a psychological disorder? Why or why not?
Chapter 18 section 4 Somatoform Disorders
Somatoform Disorders • Expression of psychological distress through physical symptoms • Psychological problem along with physical (paralysis)
Malingering • The conscious attempt to FAKE an illness in order to avoid work, school, or other responsibilities • People with somatoform disorders do not fake their illness. • Honestly feel pain and paralysis
6 Types of Somatoform Disorders 2 most common Conversion disorder and Hypochondria
Conversion Disorder • Experience change in or loss of physical functioning in a major part of the body • No known medical explanation • Patient show little or no concern about their symptoms.
hypochondria • Person’s unrealistic preoccupation with thoughts of illness or disease. • Maintains their erroneous belief despite medical doctor
Explaining Somatoform Disorders Psychological view • Primarily psychological • Repressing emotions associated with forbidden urges/ expressed in physical symptoms • Compromise unconscious need to express feelings and fear of expressing them
Biological view • Indications that biological and genetic factors involved.
Section 4 • Define malingering. How does somatization differ from malingering? • How do conversion disorder and hypochondriasis differ? • How do you think learning theorists might explain somatoform disorders? Do you agree with this type of explanation? Why or Why not?
Normal ups and downs • Everyone experience life's ups/downs • Some people experience mood changes that seem inappropriate for or inconsistent with the situation to which they are responding. • Life is good= sadness • Elated for no apparent reason • Abnormal moods like these, you may have a mood disorder.
2 general categories • Depression • Feeling of helplessness, hopelessness, worthlessness, guilt, and great sadness • Bipolar disorder • Cycles of mood changes • Depression----wild elation
7 types of mood disorders divided into Depressive and bipolar disorders
Major Depression-most common • Must experience at least 5 of the following 9 symptoms for 2 wks/every day • Depressed mood for most of the day • Loss of interest pleasure in all things • Weight loss/ gain • Sleep more / less • Change in physical and emotional reactions • Fatigue/ loss of energy • Feeling worthless/ guilty • Inability to concentrate/ make decisions • Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide