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Chapter 18---Psychological Disorders. What are Psychological disorders?. Behaviors patterns or mental process that cause serious personal suffering or interfere with a person’s ability to cope with everyday life. 1/3 of all adults have experienced some type of psychological disorder.

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what are psychological disorders
What are Psychological disorders?
  • Behaviors patterns or mental process that cause serious personal suffering or interfere with a person’s ability to cope with everyday life.
  • 1/3 of all adults have experienced some type of psychological disorder.
what is normal
What is normal?
  • What is average for most people?
  • Laughing/ too much at nothing.
problems with defining psych disorders
Problems with defining psych disorders
  • The behavior of the majority is not always wise or healthy
  • Some Atypical behaviors are eccentric (artistic geniuses) rather than indicative of a disorder
  • People with psych disorders usually do not differ much from “normal” people


  • what is most common
  • not a good guide
  • impairs an individual’s ability to function in everyday life.
  • hazardous to oneself or others
  • alcohol and drug use
emotional discomfort
Emotional discomfort
  • anxiety and depression
  • feelings of hopelessness, extreme sadness, worthlessness,
  • Guilt, thought of suicide
  • severe emotional discomfort
socially unacceptable behavior
Socially unacceptable behavior
  • violates society’s accepted norms
  • cultural differences a problem
classifying psychological disorders
Classifying psychological disorders
  • Change with each edition of the DSM or diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
  • The 3rd DSM edition in 1980 psychological disorders have been categorized on the basis of observable signs and symptoms rather than presumed causes.
answer these questions
Answer these questions
  • Identify three problems with defining normal behaviors as the behavior displayed by the majority of people.
  • How have the criteria for the classisification of psychological disorders been arranged since 1980’s?
  • Give an example of a feeling or a behavior that would be considered normal in one circumstance but a sign of psychological disorder in a different circumstance.
chapter 18 section 2

Chapter 18section 2

Anxiety Disorders

anxiety disorders
Anxiety disorders
  • A state of dread or uneasiness in response to a vague/ imagined danger
  • by Persistent,
  • excessive,
  • irrational fear,
  • nervousness,
  • concern for lost of control,
  • inability to relax
physical signs
Physical signs-
  • trembling,
  • sweating,
  • rapid heart rate,
  • shortness of breath,
  • increase blood pressure,
  • flushed face,
  • feeling of faintness/ light head
phobic disorders most common
Phobic disorders (most common)
  • Persistent, excessive, irrational fear, of a object or situation

Most common Types

  • zoophobia—fear of animals
  • claustrophobia—enclosed spaces
  • acrophobia---heights
  • arachnophobia---spiders
social phobia fear of social situations
Social phobia- fear of social situations
  • Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia (50-80% of phobic individuals)
    • Panic attack (recurring and unexpected)
      • a short period of intense fear (1 min – few hours)
      • shortness of breath, dizziness, rapid hart rate, sweating, choking, nausea, trembling, shaking,
      • going to die for no apparent reason

fear of being in places/ situations in which Impossible to escape

  • have panic attack by avoiding behaviors
  • excessive or unrealistic worry about life circumstances that lasts for at least 6 months
  • common anxiety


  • typically focus on finances, work, interpersonal problems,

accidents or illness

Agoraphobia (common among adults)

Generalized anxiety disorder


Obsessions --unwanted thoughts ideas or mental images.

  • Compulsions---- repetitive ritual behaviors
  • cleaner, checkers, washers, Hoarders, repeaters, orderers.

Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD)

post traumatic stress disorder caused by a traumatic experience
Post-traumatic stress disorder---caused by a traumatic experience.
  • flash back, nightmares, numbness of
  • feelings, avoidance increased tension
  • causes- rape, severe child abuse, assault, serve accident, airplane crash, natural

disasters, war experiences

psychological view
Psychological view
    • Psychoanalytic view
  • Anxiety is the result of forbidden childhood urges that have been repressed.
  • When surfaced may become obsessions and compulsive behaviors
learning view cognitive
Learning view Cognitive
  • Phobias are conditioned or learned in childhood
  • May occur from traumatic events
  • People make themselves feel anxious by responding negatively to most situations
  • Feel helpless to control what happens to them

Biological views

    • Heredity plays a role in most psychological disorders
  • Interaction factors-
    • both bio and psych together
section 2 review
Section 2 review
  • How does anxiety differ from fear?
  • Describe the relationship between panic disorder and agoraphobia.
  • Explain why studies of twins are important for determining whether a disorder has a biological basis.
chapter 18 section 3

Chapter 18 section 3


dissociative disorders
1 dissociative amnesia
1. Dissociative amnesia
  • Characterized by sudden lost of memory following a stressful or traumatic event
  • Typically can’t remember any events that occurred for a certain period of time surrounding the traumatic event
  • May forget all prior experiences, personal information, own name, family and friends
  • May last a few hours or years
  • No biologically explanation.
2 dissociative fugue
2. Dissociative Fugue
  • Characterized by forgetting personal information and past events
  • Taking on a new identity relocating from home and new career
  • Usually follows a traumatic event
  • When fugue ends will not remember anything during the fugue state
3 dissociative identity disorder
3.Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • Formerly called multiple personality disorder
  • Existence of 2 or more personalities
  • Personalities may or may not be aware of each other
  • Personality: different (age, sex, health)
  • Typically have suffered severe physical, sexual, and/or psychological abuse.
depersonalization disorders
Depersonalization Disorders
  • Feeling of detachment from one’s mental processes or body.
  • Feeling outside of your body/ observing yourself
  • Common with other disorders
  • Stressful event
psychological view1
Psychological view
  • Dissociate in order to prepress unacceptable urges
    • Dissociative amnesia or fugue – forgets the disturbing urges
    • Dissociative identity –develops- new personalities to take responsibility
    • Depersonalization-goes outside of self away from the turmoil within
learning view
Learning View
  • Have learned not to think about disturbing events in order to avoid shame, guilt, and pain
  • Dissociate themselves from stressful event
  • Reinforced by reduces anxiety when trauma is forgotten
cognitive biological view
Cognitive / biological view
  • No complete explanation as of yet
  • At present there is no convincing evidence that either biological or genetic factors play a role
section 3 questions
Section 3 questions

1.Describe the four dissociative disorders.

2. In some cultures people are encouraged to go into trance like states. Should this type of dissociation be considered a sign of a psychological disorder? Why or why not?

chapter 18 section 4

Chapter 18 section 4

Somatoform Disorders

somatoform disorders
Somatoform Disorders
  • Expression of psychological distress through physical symptoms
  • Psychological problem along with physical (paralysis)
  • The conscious attempt to FAKE an illness in order to avoid work, school, or other responsibilities
  • People with somatoform disorders do not fake their illness.
  • Honestly feel pain and paralysis
6 types of somatoform disorders

6 Types of Somatoform Disorders

2 most common

Conversion disorder and Hypochondria

conversion disorder
Conversion Disorder
  • Experience change in or loss of physical functioning in a major part of the body
  • No known medical explanation
  • Patient show little or no concern about their symptoms.
  • Person’s unrealistic preoccupation with thoughts of illness or disease.
  • Maintains their erroneous belief despite medical doctor
explaining somatoform disorders
Explaining Somatoform Disorders

Psychological view

  • Primarily psychological
  • Repressing emotions associated with forbidden urges/ expressed in physical symptoms
  • Compromise unconscious need to express feelings and fear of expressing them
biological view
Biological view
  • Indications that biological and genetic factors involved.
section 4
Section 4
  • Define malingering. How does somatization differ from malingering?
  • How do conversion disorder and hypochondriasis differ?
  • How do you think learning theorists might explain somatoform disorders? Do you agree with this type of explanation? Why or Why not?
normal ups and downs
Normal ups and downs
  • Everyone experience life's ups/downs
  • Some people experience mood changes that seem inappropriate for or inconsistent with the situation to which they are responding.
  • Life is good= sadness
  • Elated for no apparent reason
  • Abnormal moods like these, you may have a mood disorder.
2 general categories
2 general categories
  • Depression
    • Feeling of helplessness, hopelessness, worthlessness, guilt, and great sadness
  • Bipolar disorder
    • Cycles of mood changes
    • Depression----wild elation
7 types of mood disorders

divided into



bipolar disorders

major depression most common
Major Depression-most common
  • Must experience at least 5 of the following 9 symptoms for 2 wks/every day
    • Depressed mood for most of the day
    • Loss of interest pleasure in all things
    • Weight loss/ gain
    • Sleep more / less
    • Change in physical and emotional reactions
    • Fatigue/ loss of energy
    • Feeling worthless/ guilty
    • Inability to concentrate/ make decisions
    • Recurrent thoughts of death or suicide
severely depressed
severely depressed
  • Consumed by feelings of worthlessness of guilt
  • Calls for immediate treatment
    • 15% or more eventually commit suicide.
bipolar disorder or manic depression
Bipolar disorder/ ormanic depression
  • Dramatic ups and downs in mood
  • Period of mania or extreme excitement
    • Hyperactivity and chaotic behavior
  • change to Depression very quickly no apparent reason
  • Traits
    • Inflated self-esteem
    • Inability to sit still
    • Pressure to keep talking and switching from topic to topic
    • Racing thoughts
    • Difficulty concentrating
manic phase very disruptive
Manic phase- very disruptive
  • Highly excited
  • Act silly
  • Argumentative
  • Delusions about their superior abilities
  • Others jealous of them
  • Hallucination hearing imaginary voices
  • Seeing things that are not there
  • Impulsive behaviors
    • Quitting their jobs to pursue wild dreams
    • Spending sprees
    • Foolish business investments
explaining mood disorders
Explaining Mood Disorders
  • Psychological View
    • Internalizes anger- directs to themselves
  • Biological view
    • Has a genetic basis( chemical imbalance)
    • 25 % have family members who have moods disorders
  • Learning View
    • Learned helplessness
  • Cognitive View
    • Habitual style of explaining life events based on prior experiences
section 5
Section 5
  • What is the difference between depression and bipolar disorder?
  • List five symptoms of major depression.
  • Describe and explain self-esteem, self-efficacy and expectancy from the perspective of attribution theory.
  • Considered the most serious
  • Typically Appears in young adulthood
  • May occur suddenly
  • Characterized by
    • - loss of contact with reality
  • Linked to geneitcs
  • No cure
  • There is effective treatment
  • Hallucinations
  • Delusions
  • Thought disorders
  • Auditory (voices)
  • delusions of grandeur (superior to others)
  • Persecution (paranoid)
  • Speech( disorganized confused)
  • Social withdraw
  • Loss of social skills
  • Loss of normal emotional responsiveness
types of schizophrenia
Types of Schizophrenia
  • Paranoid
    • Delusion of auditory hallucinations/ single theme
    • Grandeur-Jealousy- persecution-CIA after them
  • Disorganized
    • Incoherent in their thought/ speech/delusions/ hallucinations/emotionless/ inappropriate emotions
  • Catatonic
    • Disturbance of movement/ slow/ stupor switching to agitation/ holds body positions
explaining schizophrenia
Explaining schizophrenia
  • Psychological View
    • Overwhelming of the Ego by urges from the ID
    • Conflict fantasies confused with reality
  • Biological View
    • A brains disorder/ frontal lobe
    • Bio risks- heredity complications during pregnancy and birth

Multi-factorial model of schizophrenia

    • Biological and psychological factors interact
    • Genetics create a vulnerability + trauma could = schizophrenia
    • Once developed family environment can negatively affect the disorder
    • Environmental factors alone does not lead to schizophrenia.
section 6
Section 6
  • List four symptoms of schizophrenia.
  • How does paranoid schizophrenia differ from disorganized schizophrenia?
  • Explain why a multi-factorial model of schizophrenia may help in explaining the disorder?
personality disorders
Personality disorders
  • Patterns of inflexible traits that disrupt social life and work/ distress the person
  • Late in adolescence/ affect thought process, emotions and behavior
  • Are enduring traits that are major components of the individual’s personality
  • 1-10% of the population (Antisocial personality disorder)
types of personality disorders 10 types 4 discussed
Types of personality disorders10 types---4 discussed
  • Paranoid personality disorder
    • Distrustful-suspicious of others
    • Difficult- argumentative, cold, aloof, view of reality is distorted (isolated life)
  • Schizoid personality disorder
    • No interest in relationship with people
    • Lack normal emotional responsiveness
    • No relationships-loners, few friends
    • Do not have delusion or hallucinations

Antisocial personality disorder

    • Persistent behavior pattern of disregard/ violation of the right of other people
    • Do not feel guilt or remorse
    • Childhood---Hurt people and animals-steal
    • Adulthood—recklessness, no job, breaks the law
  • Avoidant personality disorder
    • Want relationships/ fear and disapproval stops them
    • Shy, withdrawn,
    • Always have social problems/ phobias
    • All encompassing condition
explaining personality disorders
Explaining personality disorders
  • Psychological view
      • Lack of guilt/ failure of developing a conscious or super ego
      • Harsh punishment/ environment =lack of sense of guilt
      • experiences influence learning how to relate to people
      • No role models/ aggressive role models
biological view1
Biological view
  • Genetic\ runs in families
  • Frontal part of the brain/emotions
    • Fewer neurons than other people
    • Less responsive
    • Less likely to show guilt for their misdeeds
    • Less likely to fear punishment
section 7
Section 7

1.What is the major difference between personality disorders and other psychological disorders they may resemble?

2. Describe three behaviors of an individual with avoidant personality disorder.

3. Why do you think people with antisocial personality disorder are often more difficult to treat than people with other ypes of personality disorders?


PAGE 432 Thinking critically (1-5)

PAGE 433 Interpreting graphs (1+2)

Analyzing primary sources (3+4)