Chapter 18. Chapter 18. Psychological Disorders Section 1 Don’t try and diagnose someone yourself, certain behaviors do not make for a psychological disorder. Psychological Disorders. How does normal thoughts and behavior differ from abnormal thoughts and behaviors?. Cultural differences.
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Chapter 18 • Psychological Disorders • Section 1 • Don’t try and diagnose someone yourself, certain behaviors do not make for a psychological disorder
Psychological Disorders • How does normal thoughts and behavior differ from abnormal thoughts and behaviors?
Cultural differences • What difference does culture make in abnormal and normal behavior? • How close can you stand to someone and have it be normal? • Experiment- Find out what is the distance for how close someone can be to not invade your space • Japan- 40 Inches Middle east 32 inches Ogallala?
Psychological disorder • Behavior patterns or mental processes that cause serious personal suffering or interfere with a person’s ability to to cope with every day life.
Numbers • How much of the population have a disorder • Up to 1/3 • Any given month 13% of the population is showing signs of a disorder.
What is abnormal or normal behavior? • Usually differences are in the exaggeration of certain behaviors that leads to being classified as abnormal • Example- Laughing and laughing at funerals- others
Symptoms of disorders • diagnoses are not always simple or straightforward
1. Typicality • to what degree is it typical or average. • Just because it is not typical does not mean it’s abnormal • Examples:
What would be other examples? • Plastic Surgery • What you wear or don’t wear • What you eat or don’t eat • What is your past time • Addictions
2. Maladaptivity • Behavior impairs a persons ability to function adequately in everyday life • Examples
3.Emotional discomfort • If it is severe enough or last long enough then treatment will be needed. • Examples:
4. Socially Unacceptable behavior • Must take into culture beliefs • what is unacceptable to some may not be to others. • Examples:
Classifying Disorders • DSM • Diagnostic and statistical Manual of Mental Disorders • DSM IV 18 Categories • Page 414-book
Section 2 • Anxiety Disorders
When have you been anxious? • Big game • Test • Meeting someone • Anxiety is among the most common of the disorders in the United States.
Anxiety • general state of dread or uneasiness that occurs in response to a danger or a threat.
Characteristics • Nervousness, inability to relax, concern about losing control
Physical symptoms • trembling, sweating, rapid pulse, flushed face, feelings of faintness or light-headedness
Types of Disorders • 1. Phobic Disorder • Phobia Greek word for fear • Irrational fear of a particular object or situation • must lead to behavior that interferes with a persons normal life
http://www.phobialist.com/reverse.htmlList of phobias • What type would be phobias that could lead to disrupting a persons life • What is the difference between a phobia and a fear?
Ablutophobia- Fear of washing or bathing.Acarophobia- Fear of itching or of the insects that cause itching.Acerophobia- Fear of sourness.Achluophobia- Fear of darkness.Acousticophobia- Fear of noise.Acrophobia- Fear of heights.Aerophobia- Fear of drafts, air swallowing, or airbourne noxious substances.Aeroacrophobia- Fear of open high places.Aeronausiphobia- Fear of vomiting secondary to airsickness.Agateophobia- Fear of insanity.Agliophobia- Fear of pain.Agoraphobia- Fear of open spaces or of being in crowded, public places like markets. Fear of leaving a safe place
Social Phobia • Fear of social situations
Panic attack • relative short period of intense fear of discomfort • shortness of breath, shaking, dizziness, rapid heart rate, sweating nausea or other physical symptoms. • Lasts from a few minutes to a few hours
Agoraphobia • fear of being in a place or situation • makes up 50 -80 % of all phobias
3. General Anxiety Disorder • GAD • unrealistic worry about life circumstances that last for at least 6 months • very hard to distinguishes between other anxiety disorders.
obsessions • unwanted thoughts, ideas, or mental images that occur over and over again • often senseless or repulsive
Compulsions- • repetitive rituals behaviors, often involving checking or cleaning • number of times he chews his food • touching a toilet seat • washing hands • Arranging things
How far will you go in touching “dirty” things? Do you know how dirty money really is? Everyone touch an object? Everyone lick an object?
Post-traumatic stress disorder • PTSD- video • feelings of anxiety that are caused by experience so traumatic that it produces stress in almost everyone
Physical • flashbacks, nightmares • numbness of feelings • avoidance of stimuli that caused the trauma • increased tension • may last for months or decades
Acute Stress disorder • Same as PTSD but for a much shorter more intense period of time.
Psychoanalytic theory • hidden or repressed urges that have been repressed from childhood.
Learning Theory • phobias are conditioned or learned during childhood. • People learn to reduce their anxiety by avoiding the situation that causes the problem
Biological Views • heredity may play a role • Twin studies
Interaction of factors • Both probably play a role in anxiety disorders