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Chapter 18. Chapter 18. Psychological Disorders Section 1 Don’t try and diagnose someone yourself, certain behaviors do not make for a psychological disorder. Psychological Disorders. How does normal thoughts and behavior differ from abnormal thoughts and behaviors?. Cultural differences.

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Chapter 18

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    1. Chapter 18

    2. Chapter 18 • Psychological Disorders • Section 1 • Don’t try and diagnose someone yourself, certain behaviors do not make for a psychological disorder

    3. Psychological Disorders • How does normal thoughts and behavior differ from abnormal thoughts and behaviors?

    4. Cultural differences • What difference does culture make in abnormal and normal behavior? • How close can you stand to someone and have it be normal? • Experiment- Find out what is the distance for how close someone can be to not invade your space • Japan- 40 Inches Middle east 32 inches Ogallala?

    5. Psychological disorder • Behavior patterns or mental processes that cause serious personal suffering or interfere with a person’s ability to to cope with every day life.

    6. Numbers • How much of the population have a disorder • Up to 1/3 • Any given month 13% of the population is showing signs of a disorder.

    7. What is abnormal or normal behavior? • Usually differences are in the exaggeration of certain behaviors that leads to being classified as abnormal • Example- Laughing and laughing at funerals- others

    8. Symptoms of disorders • diagnoses are not always simple or straightforward

    9. What a Psychologist would look for when diagnosing disorders

    10. 1. Typicality • to what degree is it typical or average. • Just because it is not typical does not mean it’s abnormal • Examples:

    11. What would be other examples? • Plastic Surgery • What you wear or don’t wear • What you eat or don’t eat • What is your past time • Addictions

    12. 2. Maladaptivity • Behavior impairs a persons ability to function adequately in everyday life • Examples

    13. 3.Emotional discomfort • If it is severe enough or last long enough then treatment will be needed. • Examples:

    14. 4. Socially Unacceptable behavior • Must take into culture beliefs • what is unacceptable to some may not be to others. • Examples:

    15. Classifying Disorders • DSM • Diagnostic and statistical Manual of Mental Disorders • DSM IV 18 Categories • Page 414-book

    16. Section 2 • Anxiety Disorders

    17. When have you been anxious? • Big game • Test • Meeting someone • Anxiety is among the most common of the disorders in the United States.

    18. Anxiety • general state of dread or uneasiness that occurs in response to a danger or a threat.

    19. Characteristics • Nervousness, inability to relax, concern about losing control

    20. Physical symptoms • trembling, sweating, rapid pulse, flushed face, feelings of faintness or light-headedness

    21. Types of Disorders • 1. Phobic Disorder • Phobia Greek word for fear • Irrational fear of a particular object or situation • must lead to behavior that interferes with a persons normal life

    22. of phobias • What type would be phobias that could lead to disrupting a persons life • What is the difference between a phobia and a fear?

    23. Ablutophobia- Fear of washing or bathing.Acarophobia- Fear of itching or of the insects that cause itching.Acerophobia- Fear of sourness.Achluophobia- Fear of darkness.Acousticophobia- Fear of noise.Acrophobia- Fear of heights.Aerophobia- Fear of drafts, air swallowing, or airbourne noxious substances.Aeroacrophobia- Fear of open high places.Aeronausiphobia- Fear of vomiting secondary to airsickness.Agateophobia- Fear of insanity.Agliophobia- Fear of pain.Agoraphobia- Fear of open spaces or of being in crowded, public places like markets. Fear of leaving a safe place

    24. Social Phobia • Fear of social situations

    25. 2. Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia

    26. Panic attack • relative short period of intense fear of discomfort • shortness of breath, shaking, dizziness, rapid heart rate, sweating nausea or other physical symptoms. • Lasts from a few minutes to a few hours

    27. Agoraphobia • fear of being in a place or situation • makes up 50 -80 % of all phobias

    28. 3. General Anxiety Disorder • GAD • unrealistic worry about life circumstances that last for at least 6 months • very hard to distinguishes between other anxiety disorders.

    29. 4. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    30. obsessions • unwanted thoughts, ideas, or mental images that occur over and over again • often senseless or repulsive

    31. Compulsions- • repetitive rituals behaviors, often involving checking or cleaning • number of times he chews his food • touching a toilet seat • washing hands • Arranging things

    32. How far will you go in touching “dirty” things? Do you know how dirty money really is? Everyone touch an object? Everyone lick an object?

    33. 5. Stress Disorders

    34. Post-traumatic stress disorder • PTSD- video • feelings of anxiety that are caused by experience so traumatic that it produces stress in almost everyone

    35. Physical • flashbacks, nightmares • numbness of feelings • avoidance of stimuli that caused the trauma • increased tension • may last for months or decades

    36. Acute Stress disorder • Same as PTSD but for a much shorter more intense period of time.

    37. How to explain disorders?

    38. Psychological views

    39. Psychoanalytic theory • hidden or repressed urges that have been repressed from childhood.

    40. Learning Theory • phobias are conditioned or learned during childhood. • People learn to reduce their anxiety by avoiding the situation that causes the problem

    41. Biological Views • heredity may play a role • Twin studies

    42. Interaction of factors • Both probably play a role in anxiety disorders

    43. Section 3