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Chapter 9: Performance Leadership. Performance Standards Essentials of Performance Evaluation Making the Evaluation The Appraisal Interview Follow-Up Legal Aspects of Performance Evaluation. Performance Standards. Each performance standard states 3 things about each unit of the job:

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chapter 9 performance leadership
Chapter 9: Performance Leadership
  • Performance Standards
  • Essentials of Performance Evaluation
  • Making the Evaluation
  • The Appraisal Interview
  • Follow-Up
  • Legal Aspects of Performance Evaluation
performance standards
Performance Standards
  • Each performance standard states 3 things about each unit of the job:
    • What the employee is to do.
    • How it is to be done.
    • To what extent it is to be done (how much, how well, how soon).
  • Job descriptions are often used in recruiting, evaluating applicants, & training.
    • They are also useful in assigning work, evaluating performance, & deciding on disciplinary action.
performance standards3
Performance Standards
  • If you develop a full set of performance standards for each job classification you:
    • have the basis for a management system for your people & the work they do.
    • can use them to describe the jobs, to define the day’s work for each job, & to train employee’s.
    • can use them as a basis for rewarding achievement.
    • can use them as diagnostic tools to pinpoint ineffective performance.
    • can use them in disciplining workers.
performance standards in recruiting hiring
Performance Standards:In Recruiting & Hiring
  • Defines the job.
  • Aids in planning & forecasting.
  • Provides a method of testing skills.
  • Defines a day’s work.
performance standards in training
Performance Standards: In Training
  • Provides blueprints for a training program.
  • Sets a competency standard for job performance.
performance standards evaluating performance
Performance Standards: Evaluating Performance
  • Provides an objective evaluation method.
  • Pinpoints needs for improvement.
  • Identifies superior workers.
performance standards in your job career
Performance Standards: In Your Job & Career
  • Helps you to develop managerial skills.
  • Reduces crisis management.
  • Provides time for true management.
setting up a performance standard system 3 essentials for success
Setting up a Performance Standard System3 Essentials for Success:

1. Employee participation: better results, commitment, & morale.

2. Active supervisory leadership & assistance throughout: be in charge at all times but, work together.

3. Built in reward system: rewards linked to how well each worker meets the performance standards.

defining the purpose
Defining the Purpose
  • The first step is to define the purpose for which standards will be used.
  • This should define a day’s work, set standards, develop training programs, & evaluate on the job performance.
analyzing the job
Analyzing the Job
  • The next step is to analyze the job & break it down into units.
  • You & your crew identify units of work that are performed.
  • List in order of performance all the tasks in the units-rate them according to value.
  • Sometimes it is appropriate to define the 3 levels of performance:

1. Optimistic

2. Realistic

3. Minimum

writing the performance standards
Writing the Performance Standards
  • Be specific, clear, complete,& accurate.
  • Be measurable & observable.
  • Be attainable.
  • Conform to company policies, goals, legal & moral restraints.
  • Certain kinds of standards must have time limits set for achievement.
developing standard procedures
Developing Standard Procedures
  • The next step is to develop standard procedures.
  • These state what a person must do to achieve the results, they give spelled out instructions for the action.
  • Functions:
    • To standardize procedures you want followed.
    • To provide a basis for training.
  • Do not:
    • Get carried away on detail.
    • Make rigid rules when there is a choice on ho things can be done.
training standards
Training Standards
  • A training program should have a training objective for each standard.
  • Training objective:a trainers’ goal- a statement, in performance terms, of the behavior that shows when training is complete.
evaluating on the job performance
Evaluating on the Job Performance
  • The first evaluation is a test of both the workers & the system.
  • If the workers meets all the standards- rewards are in order.
  • This also indicates that standards & procedures are suitable & workable.
implementing a performance standard system
Implementing a Performance Standard System
  • Keys to making it work:
    • Workers’ cooperation.
    • Gradual implementation.
    • An award or incentive system.
    • Recognition & use of workers potential.
    • Periodic review.
how a performance standard system can fail
How a Performance Standard System Can Fail
  • The standards are not clearly stated & communicated.
  • The supervisor is doing a poor job.
  • The supervisor neglects various follow up elements.
  • Employees find no challenges or rewards.
  • The supervisor becomes to pre-occupied with maintaining the system.
  • The system is administered in a negative way.
essentials of performance evaluation
Essentials of Performance Evaluation
  • Performance evaluation:
    • A periodic review & assessment of each employee’s performance during a given period.
    • Are not always used for hourly workers in the hospitality industry (lack of time, workers do not stay long enough, etc.).
    • Does not substitute in any way a informal evaluation.
purpose benefits
Purpose & Benefits
  • To evaluate & give recognition.
  • Get different perspectives by looking back over a long period of time.
  • Documentation for the record.
  • Let people know how thy are doing.
  • Set improvement goals.
  • Basis for salary increase.
  • Identify workers for potential advancement.
  • May be used by other managers.
  • May be used by your boss to rate you/ provides feedback on your hiring & training.
  • Provides a occasion to get feedback from employees.
steps in the performance review process
Steps in the Performance Review Process

1. Prepare for the evaluation.

2. Making the evaluation.

3. Sharing it with the worker.

4. Providing a follow up.

making the evaluation
Making the Evaluation
  • Evaluations are typically formalized in an evaluation form.
  • This form lists performance dimensions or categories in measurable or observable terms.
  • Dimensions should be related to the job, & clearly defined in objective & observable terms.
standards ratings
Standards & Ratings
  • There should be measurable or observable standards, wherever possible to make evaluation more objective.
  • Many evaluation forms use a rating scaleranging from outstanding to unsatisfactory performance.
    • A common scale includes ratings of outstanding, above average, average, needs improvement, & poor.
    • The major problem with ratings such as outstanding or excellent is figuring out what they mean in performance terms.
    • The more precise these descriptions are, the fairer & more objective the ratings will be (i.e. point values).
    • No evaluation form solves all the problems of fairness & objectivity.
pitfalls in rating performance
Pitfalls in Rating Performance
  • Form itself
  • Halo effect
  • Letting feeling bias judgment
  • Comparing one person to another
  • Supervisors feelings about evaluation process affects ratings
  • Concern about consequences
  • Procrastination
  • Supervisor gives ratings for the effect they will have
  • Rating employees on most recent performance
defense against pitfalls
Defense Against Pitfalls
  • Evaluate performance, not the employee.
  • Give specific examples.
  • Where there is substandard performance ask WHY?
    • Use the rule of finger.
  • Think fair & consistent.
  • Get others input.
  • Write down ideas & discuss with the employee how to improve performance.
employee self appraisal
Employee Self Appraisal
  • Employees evaluate themselves.
  • May result in less employee defensiveness.
  • May result in a more constructive performance appraisal interview.
  • May improve motivation & job performance.
the appraisal interview
The Appraisal Interview
  • A private face to face session between you & your employee.
  • Plan:
    • Pick a place free of interruption at an appropriate time, review the evaluation, & keep in mind your goal of a positive climate of communication & problem solving.
conducting the interview
Conducting the Interview
  • Start off with small talk.
  • Make sure the employee understands the evaluation process.
  • Ask the employee to rate their performance.
  • Encourage the employee to comment on your judgments.
  • Get the employee to do most of the talking.
  • Work with them on setting improvement objectives.
  • Summarize the interview, end on a positive note.
common mistakes in appraisal interviews
Common Mistakes in Appraisal Interviews
  • Authoritarian approach
  • Tell & sell approach
  • Criticizing & dwelling on past mistakes
  • Failing to listen-arguing- interrupting
  • Losing control- letting emotions take over
  • Reducing standards for one person
follow up
  • 1st see that people receive the rewards they have coming to them.
  • For people you have discovered need more training, arrange to provide it for them.
  • For people you feel will improve themselves, follow their progress discreetly.
  • There will be people who you are sure will make no attempt to improve, who will continue to get by with minimum performance, reassess them in your mind.
  • There are 2 important facets of follow-up.
    • Actually carrying it out.
    • Use all you have discovered about your people & yourself to improve your working relationship with each person you supervise.
legal aspects of performance evaluation
Legal Aspects of Performance Evaluation
  • EEO laws effecting performance evaluation include:
    • Title VII of the Civil Rights Act
    • Equal Pay Act
    • Age Discrimination in Employment Act
    • Americans with Disabilities Act
fair legal evaluations
Fair & Legal Evaluations
  • Evaluations should be based on standards obtained from job analysis.
  • Use objective, observable, & measurable performance standards.
  • Keep a positive rapport during the interview.
  • Do not discuss qualities of employee based on a membership of a group.
  • Document frequently.
  • Employees should be given a way to appeal.

© 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.