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Internet Credibility and the User: Building on the April Symposium. Looking Back and Looking Forward. Conclusions: Directions for Future Work. Conceptualizations Research Agenda Tools Development and Testing. Conceptualizations: Problem Definition. Define credibility according to: Level

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internet credibility and the user building on the april symposium

Internet Credibility and the User:Building on the April Symposium

Looking Back and Looking Forward

conclusions directions for future work
Conclusions: Directions for Future Work
  • Conceptualizations
  • Research Agenda
  • Tools Development and Testing

Eisenberg/Unsworth

conceptualizations problem definition
Conceptualizations: Problem Definition
  • Define credibility according to:
    • Level
    • Need
    • Interest
    • Environment
  • Determine:
    • Scope of the problem
    • Assumptions
    • Terminology
    • The role of libraries and other institutions
  • Provide policy guidelines

Eisenberg/Unsworth

conceptualizations publications
Conceptualizations: Publications
  • White paper
    • Define credibility
    • Problem definition
    • Discussion of tools
    • Examination of 1st Amendment issues
  • Handbook
    • Policy Guidelines
    • K-20
    • Libraries
    • Web publishers and content providers
    • ??
  • Research publication
    • State of the field?
    • After next round of research efforts?

Eisenberg/Unsworth

research agenda
Research Agenda
  • Assessment of existing practice
  • User studies

Eisenberg/Unsworth

research agenda assessment of existing practice
Research Agenda: Assessment of Existing Practice
  • Literacy standards
  • Existing literature and research
  • Potential harm and benefits of credibility
  • Methodologies – how to learn or teach skills

Eisenberg/Unsworth

research agenda user studies
Research Agenda: User Studies
  • Motivation, users, and credibility. Do users perceive credibility as a problem?
  • So what? Is credibility a problem? (implications of credibility for the user)
  • What do users want to support credibility?
  • User networks—relationship to and effectiveness in determining credibility.
  • Young users; credibility at different developmental levels.

Eisenberg/Unsworth

research agenda user studies1
Research Agenda: User Studies
  • Strategies and techniques. How do users determine credibility?
  • What criteria do users apply (internal model verification)?
  • What triggers awareness? How do we promote a healthy skepticism?
  • How effective and efficient are people at determining credibility in different situations?

Eisenberg/Unsworth

tools development testing
Tools Development & Testing
  • Systems tools
  • User tools

Eisenberg/Unsworth

tools development testing general guidelines
Tools Development & Testing:General Guidelines

Should….

  • Bridge research and practice
  • Unobtrusively support learning and evaluation
  • Support existing practice
  • Build on existing systems (e.g., Google, libraries)
  • Design for the margins
  • Be controlled by the user
  • Be transparent; open source
  • Be easier to use than not to use.

Eisenberg/Unsworth

tools development testing system tools ideas
Tools Development & Testing:System Tools - Ideas
  • Prescreened lists of sites (e.g., “Loogle” – Subset of library selected websites)
  • Annotations: peer, expert, user
  • Audit trail (e.g., Wikis include an audit trail of annotations)
  • Build checklist or rating into the browser or search engine
  • Reputation systems
  • Bind the source to information – identity and relationships

Eisenberg/Unsworth

tools development testing user tools ideas
Tools Development & Testing:User Tools - Ideas
  • Guides and handbooks
    • Teaching guide
    • Video tapes
    • Teaching modules
  • Quick tips
    • Checklist
    • Card or bookmark
  • Policy implementation
  • Guidelines and tools for content providers and systems developers

Eisenberg/Unsworth

additional directions
Additional directions
  • Alliance building (e.g., Ken Kay, 21st C Partnerships)
  • PR campaign - raising awareness
  • Education programs

Eisenberg/Unsworth

further discussion
Further Discussion?

Eisenberg/Unsworth

miriam metzger conceptual overview
Miriam Metzger: Conceptual Overview
  • Five common criteria
    • Accuracy
    • Authority
    • Currency
    • Coverage
    • Objectivity
  • Problem is that people don’t use them!

Eisenberg/Unsworth

miriam metzger conceptual overview1
Miriam Metzger: Conceptual Overview
  • Credibility (Hovland et al)
    • Is in the eyes of the audience/receiver of the information
  • Believability is made up of 2 primary dimensions
    • Trustworthiness
    • Expertise
  • There are fewer gatekeepers who regulate information

Eisenberg/Unsworth

miriam metzger conceptual overview2
Miriam Metzger: Conceptual Overview
  • There is no universal determination of what is credible. How do we describe something with so much variability?
  • Measure credibility
    • Medium
    • Forms of communication
    • Entire site design
    • Information messages on the site
    • Sponsor/operator
    • Author of the site
    • gatekeepers who regulate information

Eisenberg/Unsworth

miriam metzger conceptual overview3
Miriam Metzger: Conceptual Overview
  • Types of online credibility; can be measured at different levels
    • Surface
    • Presumed credibility
    • Reputed credibility
    • Earned credibility
  • Elements of web credibility
    • Site features
    • Information on the site
    • Author features
    • Users

Eisenberg/Unsworth

miriam metzger institutions
Miriam Metzger: Institutions
  • Schools
  • libraries
  • commercial organizations
  • massmedia
  • news (pr releases
  • Search engines
  • government
  • online communities
  • healthcare systems, organizations
  • museums
  • websites for parents
  • families
  • social service institutions.

Eisenberg/Unsworth

mary ann fitzgerald
Mary Ann Fitzgerald
  • Motivation and goals of the user
  • Critical thinking skills: teach criteria about what’s authoritative
  • Users have the power to choose their own criteria and strategies.
  • Direct connection of critical thinking and library skills to Internet credibility skills

Eisenberg/Unsworth

elspeth revere
Elspeth Revere
  • Public school cultures do not encourage debate and confrontation.
  • Re Google – committed to figuring out what users want and giving it to them!

Eisenberg/Unsworth

delia neuman
Delia Neuman
  • “For years, people have judged books by their covers and civilization has not collapsed.”
  • We need to ask: to whom, for what purpose, in what context and in what degree, what beliefs, perceptions, and characteristics of users.
  • Must be user-focused.

Eisenberg/Unsworth

carolyn brodie and greg byerly
Carolyn Brodie and Greg Byerly
  • Self-service, Self-sufficiency, satisfaction, seamless.
  • User expectation – to get everything with one search.
  • Important to look at Google – why is it so successful and important? Implications for credibility.

Eisenberg/Unsworth

susan curzon
Susan Curzon

7 teaching challenges

  • Developing the educational strategy: aligning information literacy with critical thinking.
  • Tie to standards and tests. ICT. Taking information literacy to different disciplines.
  • Teaching the teachers – teacher education programs.
  • Accreditation support – info lit as part of.
  • Info literacy is more than computer literacy
  • Determine cost-benefit analysis.
  • Increase librarian and classroom teacher collaboration.

Eisenberg/Unsworth

kristen eschenfelder
Kristen Eschenfelder
  • Institutions
  • Implications for all types of institutions– regulative, normative, cultural-cognitive
  • Look at context.
  • Focus mostly on the individual. What about the role of the group?
  • Relationships over time? A process model?
  • How is the Internet different?
  • The value of balancing exposing things and not exposing things.
  • Open source facilitates transparency.

Eisenberg/Unsworth

nancy willow
Nancy Willow
  • Focus on assessment tools
  • Lack of communication across groups – systems engineers, librarians, curriculum people
  • National Education Technology Plan – aimed at companies. One way to influence commercially produced products.
  • MAJOR concern about filtering.

Eisenberg/Unsworth

batya friedman
Batya Friedman
  • Digital information is different.
  • And, its not just about the Internet – ubiquitous computing.
  • Information is valuable; malleable; tailorable; interacts with the user.

Eisenberg/Unsworth

batya friedman1
Batya Friedman
  • Value sensitive design – puts values into technology.
  • 3 part methodology –
    • Conceptual investigations (what do we mean by credibility?)
    • Empirical investigations (about social law and regulations)
    • Systems (what do we do technologically?)

Eisenberg/Unsworth

batya friedman2
Batya Friedman
  • Design for the margins
  • Whose credibility cue is it?
  • Can we validate multiple credibilities?
  • Think about plurality.
  • Think about design for flexibility.

Eisenberg/Unsworth

jonathan lazar
Jonathan Lazar
  • 3 categories of info
    • 1:1, 1:many, many:many
  • Credibility tools on email – flag suspicious links, filters (whitelist), linguistic parsers
  • Name recognition
  • Seals
  • Privacy policies

Eisenberg/Unsworth

jonathan lazar1
Jonathan Lazar
  • Tools aren’t the only answer – but can help a lot of people – and need to go for that group (even if only 40%)
  • Pop-up based on user feedback. Gives a credibility rating.
  • Prescreened list of sites (e.g., librarian’s index)
  • Reputation or recommender systems.
  • Collaborative filtering.
  • Online communities that monitor credibility of the members.
  • Cards, e.g., Web Accessibility Foundation

Eisenberg/Unsworth

dave lankes
Dave Lankes
  • What’s the problem? Is there even a credibility problem?
  • Did we move from a time when all information was credibility to all info is suspect?
  • It’s not the wild wild west anymore.
  • Differences from past media:
    • Increased ability for self service
    • Making you part of the system
    • Nature of peer tools – w/o central authority
    • New obligation or Faustian burden
  • Self service leads to greater obligation for literacy of all types
  • In a self service/self selection world, all authority becomes advisory. All credibility situational.

Eisenberg/Unsworth

dave lankes1
Dave Lankes
  • Many to many doesn’t make sense in the user context.
  • Tools
    • Awareness
    • Encryption
    • Identity management
    • Medical information
    • Annotations
    • Audit trail
  • Bias
    • Is situational; take the concept of bias out of the conversation.
    • Bias is one of the reasons people talk about credibility but information IS biased and needs to be.

Eisenberg/Unsworth

stuart sutton
Stuart Sutton
  • Identity and relationships
  • Can build a “web of trust” coming out of what we do know
    • Emerging semantic relationships.
  • Annotation layered on community assessment, but the end user will walk the last mile.
  • Don’t need to get to the code level to be transparent. Standards is required.
  • Tools don’t have to be sophisticated.

Eisenberg/Unsworth

stuart sutton1
Stuart Sutton
  • Identity and relationships
  • Can build a “web of trust” coming out of what we do know
    • Emerging semantic relationships.
  • Annotation layered on community assessment, but the end user will walk the last mile.
  • Internet2 – added people, places, and things semantically. Can use this if we can determine credibility semantically.
  • Inverse relationship bet. credibility and privacy. [?]

Eisenberg/Unsworth

mike eisenberg
Mike Eisenberg
  • Harvest all the websites that libraries collect and create a search.
  • We trust libraries.
  • We need education to raise awareness, tools, and policy.
  • Need an unobtrusive tool that runs in the background and doesn’t stop you and is built on identity and relationships

Eisenberg/Unsworth

eliza dresang
Eliza Dresang
  • The International Children’s Digital Library is a showcase of user’s research.

Eisenberg/Unsworth

louis fox
Louis Fox
  • Is this really a big problem?
  • Is there research on informal information networks.
  • Through interaction, knowledge is being created.
  • Danger of filtering. 40/70 schools have filtering that filters everything with .edu!

Eisenberg/Unsworth

debra tatar
Debra Tatar
  • Concerned about forced into a worldview of just accurate or inaccurate information. Need more models.

Eisenberg/Unsworth

jackie burkell
Jackie Burkell
  • The key to teaching learned skepticism is to think about it at different levels.
  • How do we get to the specific issues.
  • We need to ask different questions for different electronic sources.
  • Problem with seals – not credibility, just that sites have a policy.

Eisenberg/Unsworth