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Review of photo-sensor R&D for future water Cherenkov detectors NNN10 Dec 15 2010. Hiroyuki Sekiya ICRR, University of Tokyo Special Thanks T. Abe F. Tokanai , & T. Sumiyoshi Hamamatsu Photonics. 1. Contents/Disclaimer. Many activities aiming for larger/lower cost/mass-production

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review of photo sensor r d for future water cherenkov detectors nnn10 dec 15 2010

Review of photo-sensor R&D for future water Cherenkov detectorsNNN10 Dec 15 2010

Hiroyuki Sekiya

ICRR, University of Tokyo

Special Thanks

T. Abe

F.Tokanai, & T. Sumiyoshi

Hamamatsu Photonics

1

contents disclaimer
Contents/Disclaimer
  • Many activities aiming for larger/lower cost/mass-production
  • Quick review of only below technologies
    • Super Bi-Alkali /Ultra Bi-Alkali
    • Hybrid Photo-Detector
    • Gas Photo-Multiplier
    • Micro-PMT

2

d o we need r d
Do we need R&D?

3

R3600-05 (The 20 inch PMT) is excellent. It provided reliable detectors and actual results.

To keep the production quality of R3600-05, continues order to Hamamatsu is the best way.

We had better order 100,000 R3600-05s as soon as possible in order to get next generation water Cherenkov detectors within several years.

why do we r d
Why do we R&D?

4

  • Because we want better photon sensors with lower price in short delivery date!
  • The key motivation is COST.
    • Some strategies to reduce cost
      • Fewer detector with better QE
      • Larger photo-coverage with cheaper sensors
      • Simple structure for short time/mass production
      • etc.
pessimistic conclusion
Pessimistic conclusion

5

Largest sensors cannot be applied to commercial market. Hamamatsu knows…

Novel prize does not help their sales. Hamamatsu knows…

After all, R3600-05 did not bring so much benefits to Hamamatsu.

If we develop new sensors with them, cost/area may not decrease. It’s completely up to them.

However, actually, they are always willing to develop new sensors with us and they are excellent.

d efinition sba uba
Definition: SBA/UBA

vacuum level

Reflection loss

Loss in the PC

electron affinity

Excitation efficiency

work function

Extraction efficiency

band gap

γ:hν

Fermi level

ν: frequency of the photon

R: reflection coefficient

k: total absorption coefficient

Pν: excitation probability to vacuum level

L: average deviating distance of the excited e-

Ps: extraction probability from the surface

valence band

SBA : reduction of the losses

UBA : enhancement of the efficiencies

7

Quantum efficiency

5 sba pmt is available
5’’ SBA PMT is available →

8

  • So far, UBA is available only

for metal package PMTs

  • “transfer” technology is required.
    • PC is made separately from the tube and assembled
  • Not cheaper at all.
hybrid photo detector hpd
Hybrid Photo-Detector(HPD)

Engine

TOYOTA PRIUS

motor

13’’ HPD

Photo tube (cathode)

APD

Hamamatsu HPD

9

  • Hybrid car
    • Ex) Engine + Motor
  • Hybrid photo sensor
    • Ex) Photo tube + Semiconductor
      • Hybrid gain: Bombardment + Avalanche
hpd operation principle
HPD -operation principle-

Dynode

×107

  • HPD

APD

× 4500@20kV

Total

hybrid gain

×105

× 30

10

PMT

concern
Concern?
  • APD high dark current?

P.E. collection efficiency

reaches more than 95%

(PMT: 70%)

No increase in dark current

after 1000h operation at 4mA

Radiation hard.

11

20kV too high voltage?

better than pmts
Better than PMTs

12

This implies HPD is not cheaper than PMT.

We should not require everything to realize low cost??

more hybrid may reduce total cost
More Hybrid may reduce total cost

13

HPD+Electronics(A/D)+HV

performance of the hybrid hpd
Performance of the Hybrid HPD
  • Digital output

1 p.e.

0 p.e.

1p.e.

2 p.e.

2 p.e.

3 p.e.?

14

Analogue output

8 and 13 hpds available in 2012
8’’ and 13’’ HPDs available in 2012

15

Hamamatsu will release in 2012

gas photo multiplier gpm

F. Sauli

Michigan University, Ann Arbor - May 23, 2002

Gas Photo-Multiplier(GPM)

LARGE MWPC

16

A kind of Hybrid detectors

Electron multiplication by gaseous avalanche.

If combined with photocathode, very large flat-panel detectors can be realized withmuch lower cost/area.

A weak point → Strategy of “Do not require everything”

gpm operation principle
GPM –operation principle-

TRANSMISSIVE PC

photocathode

REFLECTIVE PC

Gas avalanche

Combination of MPGDs

Multi-stage amplification

Total gain ×105

Possible High QE

High resolution imaging

17

Photocathode

+ Micro Pattern Gas Detectors

large area mpgds
Large Area MPGDs

Rui de Oliveira

MPGD2009

Micromegas with readout

Kapton-GEM foil

100cmx30cm@CERN

150cmx50cm

for T2K? TPC

Mesh

18

Very active R&D and actually in use!

large area mpgds in japan
Large Area MPGDs in Japan

μ-PIC with readout

LCP-GEM foil

31cmx28cm@Kyoto

30cmx30cm

for NEWAGE

(Dark Matter Search)

19

Very active R&D and actually in use!

mpgd2011 will be held in kobe aug 29 sep 1 2011
MPGD2011 will be held in Kobe Aug 29 – Sep 1 2011

Followed by RD51 collaboration meeting (Non-EU hosts for the first time)

International organizing committee:

A.Cardini (INFN Cagliari), K.Desch (U.Bonn), ThGeralis (Demokritos Athens), I.Giomataris (CEA Saclay), T.Kawamoto (ICEPP Tokyo), A.Ochi (Kobe Univ), V.Polychronakos (BNL), A.Sharma (CERN), S.Uno (KEK), A.White (U.Texas Arlington), J.Wotschack (CERN), Z.Zhao (USTC China)

Local organizing committee:

J.Haba (KEK), H.Hamagaki (CNS), T.Kawamoto (ICEPP), A.Ochi (Kobe Univ.), H.Sekiya (ICRR), A.Sugiyama (Saga Univ.), A.Taketani (RIKEN), T.Tamagawa (RIKEN), T.Tanimori (Kyoto Univ.), S.Uno (KEK)

20

2nd International workshop on MPGD followed by RD51 collaboration meeting

feedback problems in photon detection
Feedback Problems in photondetection

A.Breskin TIPP09@Tsukuba

  • Ion and photon feedbacks

Limit the stable high gain operation

  • Many activities to overcomethe feedbacks.
    • Gating
    • Ion defocusing by MHSP/COBRA

  • Blind reflection

T. Sumiyoshi

et al.,

A. Breskin et al.,

21

2gems pic with csi pc
2GEMs+μPIC with CsI PC

Sekiya et al

TRANSMISSIVE CsI PC on MgF2 window

54mm

Ion Back Flow = Ic/Ia< 10-3

@ gas gain 105

REFLECTIVE CsI PC

on Au coated LCP-GEM

Deuteron Lump

PCcurrent

10cm

Anode current

22

  • 10cm x 10cm
  • Possibility without Hamamatsu
  • So far, tested with UV sensitive CsI
    • Low Ion feedback achieved!
imaging
Imaging

JINST 4 (2009) P11006

NIM (2010) doi:10.1016/j.nima.2010.06.114

Star

23

With solid UV scintillators

Can be applied to LAr/LXe

hamamatsu s gpm
Hamamatsu’s GPM

Prototype for R&D

Pyrex glass GEM

24

Bialkali PC + glass GEM(capillary plate)

qe in gas is lower the weak point
QE in gas is lower –The weak point-

After evacuation,

QE recovered to ~20%.

In vacuum

~20%

In Ar+CF4

~12%

Ne+CF4 gas: 14%(Max@350nm)

Ar+CF4gas :12% (Max@420nm)

26

Trans-missive Photocathode

QE~12%

long term stability
Long term stability

Relative gain

Period (days)

27

QE maintains almost the same value after 581 days operations.

strong for magnetic field
Strong for Magnetic field

28

Compensation coil for terrestrial B free!

make it larger
Make it larger

10cm

Made by a new production

Method: Sandblasting

29

Hamamatsu established the production of large Pyrex grass GEM

by 2012 they will conclude
By2012, they will conclude

100mm square Pyrex glass GEM

compared with H8500D

These are assembled in a ceramic vessel?

30

Towards large flat panel photo-sensor

pmt if we don t require the largeness
μ-PMT If we don’t require the largeness

Dynode

by micro etching technology

Photo cathode(SBA)

13mm

Glass base

(window)

Silicon base

Glass base

10mm

31

Real low cost with real mass-production!

MEMS(Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) technology realized μ-PMT → PMT? , silicon detector?

No assemble, completely automated process

slide32
μ-PMT

Typical output signal

of prototype

2x2 sample

32

Prototype:

300 pieces on a 6’’ wafer

Very uniform quality

20% Photo coveragepossibility in future??

conclusion
Conclusion

33

  • There are many activities that can be applied to next generation large water Cherenkov detector.
  • Hybrid is also trend in photo-sensors.
    • The 20’’ PMT is still the candidate.
    • SBA technology is already taken into new photo-sensors.
    • HPD is the most plausible next generation candidate.
    • GPM can be a dark horse.
    • Post-next generation large sensor?