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Carbon NANOTUBES de carbones. La prochaine vague technologique. Table des matières. What are Carbon Nanotubes?. Properties of CNTs. Applications futures possibles. How do we produce them?. Problèmes . Références. Questions???. Qu’est-ce qu’un nanotube de carbone?. What is it?.

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carbon nanotubes de carbones

Carbon NANOTUBES de carbones

La prochaine vague technologique

table des mati res
Table des matières
  • What are Carbon Nanotubes?
  • Properties of CNTs
  • Applications futures possibles
  • How do we produce them?
  • Problèmes
  • Références
  • Questions???
what is it
What is it?
  • Iijima discovered them in 1991
  • Feuille de graphite roullée en un cylindre
  • Liens sp2
  • SWNT vs MWNT
  • Forces de Van der Vaals tiennent les épaisseurs ensemble.
  • End(s) in the shape of buckyballs
comment les reconna tre
Comment les reconnaître?
  • Les CNTs sont identifiés par un couple d’entier (n,m)
caract ristiques des cnts
Caractéristiques des CNTs
  • SWNT diameter: 0.4 to 3 nm
    • 100 000 times smaller than a hair
  • MWNT diameter: ~1.4 to 100 nm
  • Length: up to several millimeters at best, usually a few microns
properties of cnts
Properties of CNTs

Mechanical properties

  • Young’s modulus of ~1TPa for SWNT and up to 1,28TPa for MWNT
    • Steel is at ~0.2TPa…
    • Wow!
  • Highest tensile strength ever mesured
    • Bone – 130
    • Steel - ~800
    • Kevlar – 3620
    • CNT – 63 000

-une paille qui se déplie

properties of cnts1
Properties of CNTs

Electrical properties

  • 3cas: -armchair SWNTare metals

-(n-m) divisible by 3 ar semiconductors with tiny gap

-others are semiconductors with ban gap depends on (diameter)-1

  • Semblable pour les MWNTs
  • The nanotubes conduct current ballistically (without scattering) -phonons propagate easily along a CNT

-high current with virtually no heating

  • Superconductivity observed at low pressure (0.55K)
  • Expérimentalement, SWNT peut supporter jusqu’à 109A/cm2

pour un métal normal, c’est seulement ~ 105A/cm2


applications of cnts
Applications of CNTs


  • Conductive and high-strength composites;
  • Field emission displays and radiation sources;
  • Lampes basée sur les nanotubes;(>8000 hours)
  • One-dimensional electronics
  • Energy storage and energy conversion devices;
    • Propriétés électrochimiques des CNTs permet la création de supercondensateurs
    • Electromechanical actuators might be used in robots…eventually
applications of cnts1
Applications of CNTs


  • Nanometer-sized semiconductor devices
  • Vestes anti-balles
  • Média d’entreposage d’hydrogène;
  • Anti-earthquake buildings
  • Production de rayons X et micro-ondes
  • Supercapacitors
  • Cancer treatment (seen in a previous presentation)
cnt production
CNT production
  • Laser abblation
  • Chemical vapor deposition
  • Arc discharge
  • Plasma torch
cnt production1
CNT production

Carbon arc discharge

  • 2 carbon electrodes (3 and 4) vaporized with catalityc metal
  • Applied voltage causes plasma between electrodes
  • Arc-electrode interaction phenomena limitations
cnt production2
CNT production

Plasma torch

  • Plasma torch: MegaWatt power scale in industry
  • Chercheur de McGill (J-L Meunier):
    • Possibility to size-up the system
problems with cnts
Problems with CNTs


  • Cost of production -high purity: 750$/g

- with impurities: 60$/g

  • Diversité des nanotubes
    • No method available to effectively separate them and/or produce CNT with only one twist
  • Limitations expérimentales dans la production
    • Par exemple la vitesse d’évaporation du tungstene sur les électrodes
problems with cnts1
Problems with CNTs


  • Méthode d’assemblage

complexes pour des

«réseaux» de nanotubes

  • Moins de problèmes avec les MWNTs
  • Multiton production in early 1990s
      • Hyperion Catalysis International Inc
  • In Japan, plans for 120 ton/year of MWNT at 75$/kg
r f rences
  • Physical properties of carbon nanotubes, ADAMS II, T., (2000) (
  • Carbon nanotubes and related structures:New materials for the 21st century, HARRIS, P.J.F., Am. J. Phys, Vol 72, no.3, p.415, March 2004
  • Atomic chiken wire, LOUIE, S.,(
  • Carbon nanotube,  “Wikipedia”, (
  • Carbon nanotubes roll on, Physics Web, (june 2000) ([novembre2005]
r f rences 2
  • Multiwall carbon nanotubes, Physics Web, (june 2000) ([novembre2005]
  • Carbon nanotubes from the dissociation of C2Cl4 using a dc thermal plasma torch, HARBEC D.,MEUNIER J-L., GUO L., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, pp.232-239,2121-2126,(2004)
  • Fullerene synthesis in the graphite electreode arc process:local plasma characteristics and correlation with yield, Saïdane K, et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 37, pp.232-239,(2004)
  • Carbon Nanotubes--the Route Toward Applications, Science, Vol 297,no.5582, pp 787-792

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