Behavioral Interpretation of Memory David C. Palmer
Experimental analysis vs. Interpretation Experimental analysis Manipulation of independent variables and study effect on DV Interpretation Explaining a phenomenon using known principles Helpful in complex arrangements that may be impossible to analyze
Memory? Storage metaphor Traditional theories of memory appeal to experiences stored in “memory banks”, etc. Then, we recall a memory by retrieving the experience from our “memory” Memories are sometimes stored as “copies”
Memory? Behavioral view Memory is a behavioral phenomenon Memories are stimulus control relations that survive across time For example, child learns to name “pencil”: is then able to name it the next day Forgetting therefore is the weakening of a behavioral relation over time
Memory? Another angle: The behavior of “remembering” may also be a result of problem solving Problem: Responses are in the repertoire SDs are present that signal reinforcement is forthcoming and EO is present The response is not under direct control of current stimuli
Memory? Example: What did you have for breakfast yesterday? “Pancakes” is in the repertoire as a tact Reinforcement is scheduled for the answer But, “pancakes” has not been conditioned directly to “What did you have for breakfast yesterday” – not an intraverbal To emit the response, two elements must obtain: 1) Person must get supplementary stimuli to evoke response, and 2) must recognize it as correct
Memory? Exploratory VB – self probes “What did I do yesterday? Hmm… got up, took a shower, and then… oh yes, I made some cereal Conditioned seeing Assume that perceptual behavior (seeing) is conditioned as we emit it and can be evoked by accompanying stimuli That is, we may “see” ourselves coming out of the shower, going to the kitchen, and getting the cereal
Memory? Conditioned seeing (cont’d) Note that conditioned seeing is evoked by current stimuli that may be associated with the seeing – “Now what did I do this AM…”We“see” the kitchen and some of the stimuli that were present How do we recognize that it is correct? We may respond to its strength: “I am sure that I had cereal” The conditioned seeing may evoke other vivid conditioned seeing that is strong to confirm
Memory? Main point: to remember is to provide supplementary stimuli to yourself using exploratory VB and conditioned seeing
You are discussing a case with a VE teacher who is taking her first course in the ABA sequence at FIT. The issue at hand is a kid’s tantrums. The teacher explains the tantrums in the following way: “He is having these tantrums because of frustration.” • What kind of faulty explanation is this? • Please describe the feedback that you would provide to her.
You decide to work on the case described above. The descriptive analysis information suggests that the tantrums occur because in the past, such behavior has been followed by attention. Design an FA that would test this hypothesis.
Critique the following:“The data shows that the behavior has improved quite dramatically.”
You have a client who is taking Valium for anxiety. The mother has decided that the drug causes too much sedation, and immediately terminates the drug administration. • What are the main effects of drug? • Withdrawal syndrome? • Possible risk events? • How does Valium work?
Uh Oh… • Personality trait • “I wanna be sedated…” • ½ life of drug • DOE • FCN • Extinction • COD • Self control (Lab) • Conc superstition • RTE • Spontaneous recovery • Functional equivalence • Operant • Most to least • Memory • EO • Conditioned seeing • Problem • Emotion • Meaning • Anxiety • Self control (Skinner) • Rate • Epigentics • Punctuated equilibrium • Pairwise FA • Diphtheria • 3 levels of selection
“Behaviorists Think That We Don’t Have Emotion! Bad Behaviorists!”
You are working with a teacher who is teaching the letters of the alphabet. She is using cards with the letter and a picture of an item that if spelled out, would start with the letter in question. For example, the “A” card has an apple on it, the “B” card has a bat on it, etc. The kids are responding well to each card. The teacher asks you one day “Hey I wonder if the kids are attending to the letter or the picture of each card?” • First, explain to her what “attention” means. • Then, design an experiment that will answer her question. • Finally, what EAB study provides the basis for your experiment?
You are working with a 40 year old male who exhibits aggression and property destruction. There is a behavior program in place to address the behaviors, and there is a full complement of medications. One of the meds is Risperdol. • What class is the drug? • You are discussing the med with staff, and wish to alert them about possible side effects. What are these? • What NT is involved?
You design a Tx package that involves a DRI schedule in which attention is delivered for staying on task for a period of time (e.g., 5 minutes). • How is the DRI interval set? • Set up an experiment that would show the Tx is effective • Set up an experiment that disentangles the attention from the contingency between staying on task and attention
Uh Oh… • Emotional operations • Taste aversion • AO • Tact private events • Inductive reasoning • Values • Correlational study • 4 humours • Measure: following directions • Positive contrast • IRT • Constructional approach • Resp extinction • Time delay prompt fading • PR 50 • Reversal design • Projection • Formal probe • Dependent variable • Verbal summator • Punishment contrast • Conditioned suppression • Creativity source • Projective tests • Operant seeing • Wit • Exact count IOA • Behavior momentum
Critique the following: “The criteria for the experiment was changed, and it was modified by the experimenter.”
Critique the following: “The experimenter re-designed the study quickly, and then began anew.”
Case #1: There is a case on which you are consulting. The client is a 25 year old female who frequently throws items in the house. The have been many functional analyses of the behavior over the years, but there are no conclusive results. However, one hypothesis is that the behavior produces automatic reinforcement in the form of the sight/sound of the item hitting the floor. Design an FA to test this hypothesis. Do not try and separate the effects of the sight vs the sound of the item hitting the floor. Only test whether or not that event, the sight/sound of the item hitting the floor, is maintaining the behavior.
Explanations: You are working on a case with another graduate student in ABA. A particularly difficult situation is being discussed, and the behavior involves some elopement. Your friend explains the behavior with statements such as this: “She is running away to get some PVC pipes that her neighbor has in his garage.” Critique this explanation of behavior, and offer an alternative explanation.
Critique the following: The data were graphed by the behavior analyst very precisely.
Yikes… • Rights • Reinforcement trap • Brief FA • Drug as AO • Behavioral view of drug abuse • Conc FR 50 VI 1’ • Pairwise FA • Resurgence • 3 characteristics of graphed data • Relationship • Multiple probe • Endorphin theory of SIB • Siegel morphine tolerance • We feel free when… • Pattern in FR 50 • FI 1’ • Holz & Azrin view of pun • Conditioned suppression • Hold responsible • Drug as EO • 3 levels of selection • When we give credit • 4 facts about drugs • Draw negative contrast • “…I’m in need of some restraint…” • Mean count per interval IOA • Drug as a positive reinf
Case #1 You are working in a vocational training center with several staff who are charged with implementing a behavior program. You are interested in treatment fidelity (or integrity). You have a procedure that you think will improve fidelity that involves feedback and incentives. Design an experiment that will test the efficacy of the treatment on Tx fidelity.
Real life respondent conditioning: Diagram an example of respondent conditioning using the relevant terms.
Case #2: There is a case on which you are consulting. The client is a 25 year old female who frequently throws items in the house. The have been many functional analyses of the behavior over the years, but there are no conclusive results. However, one hypothesis is that the behavior produces automatic reinforcement in the form of the sight/sound of the item hitting the floor. Design an FA to test this hypothesis. Do not try and separate the effects of the sight vs the sound of the item hitting the floor. Only test whether or not that event, the sight/sound of the item hitting the floor, is maintaining the behavior.
I knew this would happen… • Intrinsic motivation • Anger • Repression • Encourage maintenance • Back chaining • MSWO • PSI • Momentary DRO • Interdependent group • DRL x 2 • Reactivity • Systematic replication • Trigger analysis • Nominal fallacy • Divided attention • NCR mechanism of effect • Diff between neg pun & ext • Diff between EO and SD • 2 repertoires in problem • Program generalization • DRH x 2 • Concept formation • Adjusting ratio • Escape/avoid hierarchy • 3 characteristics of behavior • Sequence analysis • Independent group • Behavioral analyst • SDP • Reification
One of the key concepts in behavior analysis is the operant. Do the following: • Give an example of an operant using all 4 terms. • Give an example of a given response that belongs to more than one operant.