Toxicity Detection of Pollutants in Freshwater Using Daphnia Magna and EDVOTEK Kit Christopher Porter (Undergraduate) and Stephanie Luster- Teasley , PhD (advisor) College of Engineering, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, North Carolina 27411. Conclusion.
Toxicity Detection of Pollutants in Freshwater Using Daphnia Magna and EDVOTEK Kit
Christopher Porter (Undergraduate) and Stephanie Luster-Teasley, PhD (advisor)
College of Engineering, North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, Greensboro, North Carolina 27411
Materials and Methods
Water is one of the most fundamental needs for any life form to survive on Earth. Approximately 70.9% of the Earth is composed of water and of that 70.9%, 97% is salt water while only 3% is fresh water. Because of the low salt concentration in fresh water, many organisms and ecosystems can survive within those bodies of water for consumption and personal usage. However, as the world becomes increasingly advanced in industry, manufacturing, and technology, the amount of drinkable freshwater becomes progressively scarce. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of pollutants at different concentration levels (potassium permanganate and copper sulfate) the effectiveness of a water treatment polymer pellet. Daphnia Magna are placed in several tanks and monitored before treatment. The polymer is added to a series of wells (n=6) in increasing amount of polymer pellets. The EDVOTEK kit was used to measure the overall health of the Daphnia Magna. The polymer proved to be effective in reducing microbiota, color, and odor of the tested water samples. This indicates a beneficial method of water treatment.
Figure 1 - Daphnia magna
Daphnia magna are collected (n=36) from a tank and put into six different wells, each well containing 6 Daphnia magna with copper sulfate and potassium permanganate/polymer blend as seen in Table 1A and 1B.
Figure 3A – Comparison of Survival Rates of Daphnia magna between CuSO4 and KMnO4
(1- day release)
Potassium Permanganate (KMnO4) on wasonlyreleased for approximatelytwenty-one hours, as opposed to the ideal 24 hour release. Also, continuation of the water toxicologyexperimentwillinvolvedifferent time variations of the polymer release and various type of pollutants.
Fresh drinkable water is one of the most vital global resources in existence today and needs to be one of our top priorities to regulate and protect. Sources of the drinkable water come from water vapor, lakes and rivers, glaciers, and soil moisture. These sources repeatedly become available to for global use through the water cycle. However, despite this timeless cycle, the amount of water being brought into the cycle ultimately becomes polluted by modern day harmful chemicals. Various factories, manufacturers, and industries dump waste and byproducts into lakes, rivers, and other bodies of water in order to save time and money. As a result of the dumping, the aquatic plants and animals slowly die off, disrupting the delicate ecosystem around them and the environment as a whole. At the same time, humans can either no longer drink the water because of adverse health effects or the water gains objectionable traits, such as undesirable taste or odor, that make it unpleasant to drink.
In research, spring water can be used as an experimental media to study the environment of marine life and Daphnia magna is used as the representation of that marine life. Daphnia magna are small planktonic crustaceans that are low maintenance, have a small life span, and are sensitive to artificial chemicals. Therefore, Daphnia magna are the ideal test subjects for any water toxicology laboratory work.
LeBlanc, Gerald A. "Acute Toxicity of Priority Pollutants to Water Flea (Daphnia Magna) - Springer." Acute Toxicity of Priority Pollutants to Water Flea (Daphnia Magna) - Springer. Springer-Verlag, 01 Dec. 1980. Web. 14 Nov. 2013.
Adema, D.M M. "Daphnia Magna as a Test Animal in Acute and Chronic Toxicity Tests - Springer." Daphnia Magna as a Test Animal in Acute and Chronic Toxicity Tests - Springer. Kluwer Academic Publisher, 01 June 1978. Web. 14 Nov. 2013.
Observation of Daphnia magna
Daphnia magna are placed into solution for 45 minutes and then are given the IQ sugar-fluorescent additive. After an additional 15 minutes, a UV light is used to observe the survival of the Daphnia magna The glowing indicates living Daphnia magnaas shown in Figure 2.
Figure 3B – Comparison of Survival Rates of Daphnia magna between CuSO4 and KMnO4
I wouldlike to thank the Engage2BE program and InterdisplinaryTraining for Undergraduates in Biological and Mathematical Sciences (UBM) Program (Grant A1029426 from the National Science Foundation) Thankyou to Dr. StephanieLuster-Teasley for advising me on the labequipment, data interpretation and terminologyand graduatestudentNiya King for teaching me how to develop the polymerblend
Figure 2 – Daphnia magna glowing under UV light
The hypothesis of this study is that the polymer will be effective in reducing microbiota, color and odor of untreated water.