The Civilization of the Greeks: 1. Minoan 2. Mycenae 3. Dark Ages - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Civilization of the Greeks: 1. Minoan 2. Mycenae 3. Dark Ages

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  1. Chapter 4 The Civilization of the Greeks:1. Minoan2. Mycenae3. Dark Ages A bust of Pericles

  2. Minoans (2000 – 1450 BCE) Palace at Knossos

  3. Minoan Crete, 2000-1450 B.C.E. • Named for legendary King Minos, centered on the Island of Crete Detail of Throne

  4. 4 major Complexes • 3 functions of the palace: • Royal residences • Centers for religion and ritual • Headquarters for administering the Creten economy • Powerful, efficient government-controlled trade • Strength based on trade in the Eastern Mediterranean

  5. Trade With Egypt

  6. Grand Stair case with frescos beyond on walls.

  7. Palace columns at Knossos showing two levels

  8. Dolphin fresco from queen’s Megaron

  9. Dancing girl from Queen’s Megaron

  10. Bull leaping Games Fresco at knossos

  11. Female Statuettes • thousands of distinctive marble figurines • vast majority of female. • Suggests women’s status • Very few male figurines • musical activity, playing a lyre or double pipes.

  12. Mountain Mother • Worshipped at mountain peak ceremonies • Numerous rings and paintings depict rituals of ecstatic song and dance in her honor

  13. Bull’s head Knossos, gold and faience

  14. Bull’s Horns Gate at Knossos

  15. Crafts people of crete Highly developed art forms Bronze tools Gems Fine – egg shell- pottery for export Golden double headed axes from cave near Knossos

  16. Minoan Ewer Golden bee Minoan culture

  17. Inlaid bronze knife – Belonged to a woman.

  18. Interior drains Sewage System

  19. Water works outside hall of the double axes

  20. Storage at Knossos

  21. Pictograph by 2000 BCE Syllabic Writing by 1700 BCE Linear A

  22. Linear A Not yet deciphered

  23. New Script – • linear B • Transcribes Greek • Minoan characters with early form of Greek • May have become the official language of Crete

  24. Linear B logograms

  25. Linear B Syllabry

  26. End of Minoan • 1450 - destruction of 3 major palaces. • Volcano Thera - too early. • 1370 - Palace at Knossos also destroyed • Crete was incorporated into Mycanae, the leading city state of Mainland Greece

  27. B. Mycenae: 1st Greek State p94

  28. Named for Mycenae the principle palace site and stronghold Militaristic culture Intent on conquest, raiding & obtaining gold Active traders Colonies in Eastern Mediterranean Mycenae 3

  29. Mycenaeans • Small kingdoms • Dwellings centered around a heavily fortified hill top palace or citadel • Mycenae - capital of the legendary king, Agamemnon • Administrative center • Cemetery • Wall Reconstruction of Megaron

  30. Massive entrance gate - huge stone lions

  31. Mycenae: War Culture • War-related artifacts and vase paintings depicting war abound • Grave goods evidence wealth of some kings

  32. Dominance of Men • Mycenaean Gods, Zeus and Apollo established over the sanctuaries of female deities worshipped before conquest • Earlier predominance of female deities replaced with male images

  33. Gold death mask tomb IV Mycenae Gold Lion Head Mycenae

  34. p95

  35. Greek “Dark ages” • 1150 – 750 BCE A period of general upheaval throughout much of the eastern Mediterranean • Mycenaean commerce, culture, government & writing declined • lost knowledge of how to write • 850 BCE people emerged from time of darkness • settling, building towns, trading overseas • new waves of immigration increased population • restored written culture

  36. p96