Introduction to Poetry. Objective. Students will be able to identify/describe the structure of poems (stanza, meter, rhyme scheme, couplet) Students will be able to identify/describe the following poetic devices: Allusion Alliteration Onomatopoeia Rhetorical questions Repetition.
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Objective • Students will be able to identify/describe the structure of poems (stanza, meter, rhyme scheme, couplet) • Students will be able to identify/describe the following poetic devices: • Allusion • Alliteration • Onomatopoeia • Rhetorical questions • Repetition
What is poetry? • Poetry is a literary art (writing) where language is used to evoke (call to mind) specific experiences and emotions through meaning, sound, and rhythm.
Stanza (Verse) • Generally, a poem consists of one or more stanzas • A stanza consists of a grouping of lines, that usually follows a set pattern of meter and rhyme.
The basic rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in a verse Meter is the rhythm of the poem Bear In There by Shel Silverstein There's a Polar Bear In our Frigidaire-- He likes it 'cause it's cold in there. With his seat in the meat And his face in the fish And his big hairy paws In the buttery dish, He's nibbling the noodles, He's munching the rice, He's slurping the soda, He's licking the ice. And he lets out a roar If you open the door. And it gives me a scare To know he's in there-- That Polary Bear In our Fridgitydaire. Meter
Rhyme Scheme • A rhyme scheme is the pattern of rhyming lines in a poem. • It is usually referred to by using letters to indicate which lines rhyme. For example ABAB indicates a four-line stanza in which the first and third lines rhyme, as do the second and fourth. Bid me to weep, and I will weep (A) While I have eyes to see; (B) And having none, yet I will keep (A) A heart to weep for thee (B)
My Heart Leaps Up When I Behold _______________ MY heart leaps up when I behold A rainbow in the sky: So was it when my life began, So is it now I am a man, So be it when I shall grow old 5 Or let me die! The child is father of the man: And I could wish my days to be Bound each to each by natural piety. --William Wordsworth 1. Rhyme Scheme 2. Alliteration (first 3 lines) 3. Personification A ___ __ B ___ ____ C __ ____ C A B C D D
Couplet • a pair of successive (one after another) lines of verse, especially a pair that rhyme and are the same length (# of syllables) • Example: From what I’ve tasted of desire/I hold with those who favor fire • Each line has nine (9) syllables
Poetic Devices • You should already be able to identify and use • Similes • Metaphors • Personification • Symbolism
Imagery • Imagery consists of the pictures a poet creates or suggests to the reader • These images allow the reader to participate in the poem • Poetic imagery appeals to the five senses: • Sight: Visual image • Touch: Tactile image • Taste : Gustatory image • Smell: Olfactory image • Hear: Auditory/aural image
Alliteration • The repetition of the initial consonant sounds • Example: Terrible truths Lullaby Lies
Assonance • Repetition of vowel sound • Example: mystery disguised within • Purple curtain
Onomatopoeia • A word that imitates the sound it represents. • Examples: Buzz, Burrrrr, cough, ouch, crack
Repetition • Surprisingly enough, repetition means certain words or lines are repeated • When a poet does this, they are trying to draw attention to that line or idea
Rhetorical Question • A question that is not meant to be answered by someone else • The author or speaker will usually answer it • “If you prick us do we not bleed, if you tickle us do we not laugh?”
Bob Dylan’s 115th Dream • What words would you use to describe this song? • Write down three words that you would associate with it
I was riding on the MayflowerWhen I thought I spied some landI yelled for Captain ArabI have yuh understandWho came running to the deckSaid, boys, forget the whaleLook on over yonderCut the enginesChange the sailHaul on the bowlineWe sang that melodyLike all tough sailors doWhen they are far away at sea I think I’ll call it AmericaI said as we hit landI took a deep breathI fell down, I could not standCaptain Arab he startedWriting up some deedsHe said, Let’s set up a fortAnd start buying the place with beadsJust then this cop comes down the streetCrazy as a loonHe throw us all in jailFor carryin’ harpoons
Ah me I busted outDon’t even ask me howI went to get some helpI walked by a Guernsey cowWho directed me downTo the Bowery slumsWhere people carried signs aroundSaying, ban the bumsI jumped right into lineSayin’, I hope that I’m not lateWhen I realized I hadn’t eatenFor five days straight I went into a restaurantLookin’ for the cookI told them I was the editorOf a famous etiquette bookThe waitress he was handsomeHe wore a powder blue capeI ordered some suzette, I saidCould you please make that crepeJust then the whole kitchen explodedFrom boilin’ fatFood was flying everywhereAnd I left without my hat
Now, I didn’t mean to be nosyBut I went into a bankTo get some bail for ArabAnd all the boys back in the tankThey asked me for some collateralAnd I pulled down my pantsThey threw me in the alleyWhen up comes this girl from FranceWho invited me to her houseI went, but she had a friendWho knocked me outAnd robbed my bootsAnd I was on the street again Well, I rapped upon a houseWith the U.S. flag upon displayI said, could you help me outI got some friends down the wayThe man says, get out of hereI’ll tear you limb from limb I said, you know they refused Jesus, tooHe said, you’re not HimGet out of here before I break your bonesI ain’t your popI decided to have him arrestedAnd I went looking for a cop
I ran right outsideAnd I hopped inside a cabI went out the other doorThis Englishman said, FabAs he saw me leap a hot dog standAnd a chariot that stoodParked across from a buildingAdvertising brotherhoodI ran right through the front doorLike a hobo sailor doesBut it was just a funeral parlorAnd the man asked me who I was I repeated that my friendsWere all in jail, with a sighHe gave me his cardHe said, call me if they dieI shook his hand and said goodbyeRan out to the streetWhen a bowling ball came down the roadAnd knocked me off my feetA pay phone was ringingIt just about blew my mindWhen I picked it up and said helloThis foot came through the line
Well, by this time I was fed upAt tryin’ to make a stabAt bringin’ back any helpFor my friends and Captain ArabI decided to flip a coinLike either heads or tailsWould let me know if I should goBack to ship or back to jailSo I hocked my sailor suitAnd I got a coin to flipIt came up tailsIt rhymed with sailsSo I made it back to the ship Well, I got back and tookThe parkin’ ticket off the mastI was ripping it to shredsWhen this coastguard boat went pastThey asked me my nameAnd I said, Captain KiddThey believed me butThey wanted to knowWhat exactly that I didI said for the Pope of ErukeI was employedThey let me go right awayThey were very paranoid
Well, the last I heard of ArabHe was stuck on a whaleThat was married to the deputySheriff of the jailBut the funniest thing wasWhen I was leavin’ the bayI saw three ships a-sailin’They were all heading my wayI asked the captain what his name wasAnd how come he didn’t drive a truckHe said his name was ColumbusI just said, Good luck
Objective • Students will be able to determine and articulate the relationship between the purposes and characteristics of different forms of poetry • Today we will focus on narrative poetry. • Ballads and epic poems are two types of narrative poetry
What is narrative poetry? • Narrative poetry tells a story • So it has all the following features: • Plot • Setting • Characters • Central conflict • Climax • Falling action • Resolution
Types of Narrative Poetry • Two of the most popular forms of narrative poetry are: • Ballads • Epics
Ballads • Ballads originated as folk songs in Europe • Most are set to music • Tell the dramatic story of one or more characters • Usually consist of four line stanzas where alternating lines rhyme or the second and fourth lines rhyme
Well, the last I heard of Arab AHe was stuck on a whale BThat was married to the deputy C Sheriff of the jail B But the funniest thing was DWhen I was leavin’ the bay EI saw three ships a-sailin’FThey were all heading my way E I asked the captain what his name was DAnd how come he didn’t drive a truck GHe said his name was Columbus HI just said, Good luck G
Epic Poem • Epic poems originated as one of the earliest forms of extended storytelling • Were not written down but told orally • Characterized by heavy repetition (to help storyteller remember) • Examples: Odyssey, Iliad, Gilgamesh, Mahabharata
Epic Poems • Epic poems cover large swaths of time and detail a heroic journey • In fact, they provide the structure for many myths and adventure • This includes: Star Wars, Lighting Thief, Harry Potter, LOTR
Hero’s Journey • The features of a hero’s journey include: • The Call: The hero is charged with a quest. • The Test: The hero must prove the worthiness of himself and his quest. • The Characters: Mythical beings, magical and helpful animals and human helpers • The Location: Supernatural world, inaccessible to normal human beings • The Challenge: The hero nearly gives up or appears defeated. • Restitution: The hero regains his rightful place.
Your Turn • You will receive a handout that asks you to analyze a ballad, “Casey at the Bat” and the hero’s journey in popular culture
Fog by Carl Sandburg The fog comes on little cat feet. It sits looking over harbor and city on silent haunches and then moves on
Objective Students will be able to determine and articulate the relationship between the purposes and characteristics of different forms of poetry Today we will focus on lyric poetry. Odes and elegies are two types of lyric poems
What is lyric poetry • Lyric poetry communicates an idea or an emotion about a subject • It does not follow a linear narrative • Can be recited (spoken) or sung (accompanied by music)
Lyric Poetry • The subject and/or the message of a lyric poem may not always be clear • Many times it is abstract • More difficult to understand than (most) narrative poems. • Heavy use of symbolism
By Emily Dickinson The Sky is low- the Clouds are mean. A Travelling Flake of Snow Across a Barn or through a Rut Debates if it will go- A Narrow Wind complains all Day How some one treated him Nature, like Us, is sometimes caught Without her Diadem.
Ode • An ode is a kind of lyric poem • Odes express deep appreciation and/or feeling about the subject • Can be serious or funny • Odes have to celebrate a person, place, thing, or idea
My garbage man, he is the best, I favor him above the rest. What would we all do without him, I do believe his name is Tim. Tim is such a great,grand fellow, He takes all our junk, and rotten jello. He clears the land of all the trash, And doesn't stop for new year's bash. He doesn't break on Christmas day, Nope,with his garbage truck he'll stay. Through the thick and through the thin, Tim will carry out our bins. So when you see the garbage man, Weather He be Tim or Stan, When you give him your garbage can, You go out shake his hand. He deserves Our full attention, Not to mention a good size pension. Well garbage men I thank you, For serving me and America too. Ode to the Garbage man by Lemon Squeezy
An elegy is poem that mourns the death of someone Naturally, many are melancholy (sad) but end in consolation (a source of comfort) Elegy
When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom’d by Walt Whitman When lilacs last in the dooryard bloom’d, And the great star early droop’d in the western sky in the night, I mourn’d, and yet shall mourn with ever-returning spring. Ever-returning spring, trinity sure to me you bring, Lilac blooming perennial and drooping star in the west, And thought of him I love. O powerful western fallen star! O shades of night—O moody, tearful night! O great star disappear’d—O the black murk that hides the star! O cruel hands that hold me powerless—O helpless soul of me! O harsh surrounding cloud that will not free my soul.
Epitaph • An epitaph is a very short elegy meant for someone’s tombstone
Objective Students will be able to determine and articulate the relationship between the purposes and characteristics of different forms of poetry Today we will focus on free verse, occasional poems, and poetry as protest Students will also be able to systematically analyze poetry
What is free verse poetry? • Free verse poetry does not follow any set meter or rhyme scheme • Whitman is called the “father of free verse” • Free verse can flow much like regular speech or stream of consciousness
Free verse • Free verse is not bound by the number of lines a stanza must have or the count of stressed syllables • Robert Frost said it was like, “playing tennis without a net”
e.e. cummings Buffalo Bill's defunct who used to ride a watersmooth-silver stallion and break onetwothreefourfivepigeonsjustlikethat Jesus he was a handsome man and what i want to know is how do you like your blueeyed boy Mister Death
Occasional Poems • Occasional poems are written to commemorate, comment on, or describe a specific event (funeral, birthday, victory, inauguration, etc.) • Usually read publicly • These lyric poems include odes & elegies and can have a set meter/rhyme scheme or be in free verse
Obama’s Second Inauguration • Composed/read by the poet laureate Richard Blanco • Poem • What do you think the main idea, or theme, of his poem is? • What imagery/symbolism/devices does he use to communicate the theme?