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Ideology of the New Order. American Religious History – Post Civil War to Present Dr. Donald E. Harpster. Ideology of the New Order. Classical Economics Thomas Malthus – “Essay on Principle of Population” David Ricardo – “Iron Law of Wages” Social Darwinism Herbert Spencer

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ideology of the new order

Ideology of the New Order

American Religious History – Post Civil War to Present

Dr. Donald E. Harpster

ideology of the new order1
Ideology of the New Order
  • Classical Economics
    • Thomas Malthus – “Essay on Principle of Population”
    • David Ricardo – “Iron Law of Wages”
  • Social Darwinism
    • Herbert Spencer
    • William Graham Sumner
  • Gospel of Wealth
    • General
    • Andrew Carnegie
  • Success Myth – Horatio Alger
  • Legal Defense of Laissez-faire
classical economics
Classical Economics
  • Malthus – Principle of Population
    • Food Supply – (1-2-3-4-5-6)
    • Population – (1-2-4-8-16-32)
    • Population will grow much faster than food supply resulting in poverty and even starvation

Thomas Malthus

classical economics1
Classical Economics
  • Ricardo – Iron Law of Wages
    • Wages be no higher than to maintain the work force at a subsistence level
    • Higher wages – More children – increase population – wages will go down to previous level
    • To pay more is unnatural/ lower wages are a kindness

David Ricardo

social darwinism
Social Darwinism
  • Herbert Spencer
    • The human condition
      • All of life is a jungle-like struggle to keep alive
      • Survival of the fittest
      • Need struggle for the improvement of the race
    • Two laws
      • Law of absolute freedom
      • Law of conduct and consequences
    • Welfare will only take from the fit to help the unfit, blocking progress
    • Government – soldier, policeman, & judge
social darwinism1
Social Darwinism
  • William Graham Sumner
    • Founder of modern sociology
    • American disciple of Spencer
    • Soften Spencer’s doctrines a bit
    • Do nothing during a depression to aid the poor
  • Both Spencer’s and Sumner’s ideas were thought of as part of the natural order, scientific, and therefore could not be changed.
gospel of wealth
Gospel of Wealth
  • Popular Conception
    • “Godliness is in league with riches.”

– Bishop Lawrence

    • “. . .no man suffers from poverty unless it be more than his fault – unless it be his sin.”

– Henry Ward Beecher

Bishop William Lawrence

Henry Ward Beecher

gospel of wealth1
Gospel of Wealth
  • Russell H. Conwell
  • Baptist minister in Philadelphia
  • “Acres of Diamonds” sermon
  • O.K. to be wealthy
gospel of wealth2
Gospel of Wealth
  • Andrew Carnegie
    • Wealthy Industrialist in Steel
    • Concerned about the disparity between rich and poor
gospel of wealth3
Gospel of Wealth
  • Options for the man of wealth to see it is used properly
    • Family – ruin character of sons
    • Charity – degrading for the poor
    • State – misuse it
    • Self – the best, dispose of it during lifetime or create a foundation to create self-help projects such as libraries, etc.
success myth horatio alger
Success Myth – Horatio Alger
  • Cult of the self-made man
  • Success is due to practice of virtue and hard work
  • Rages to riches
  • Based on actual interviews
legal defense of laissez faire
Legal Defense of Laissez-faire
  • 14th Amendment of the U. S. Constitution – no state shall deprive any person of life, liberty or property without due process of law
    • Person – corporation
    • Life – can’t be deprived on its charter
    • Liberty – freedom to do anything you want to what is you and yours
    • Property – Tangible possessions, profession, good will, anticipated profits
    • Due Process of Law – Can’t single out corporations, e.g. Jacobs Case – Health regulations in a tenement where cigars made – just meddling and interfering
ideology of the new order2
Ideology of the New Order
  • Supportive ideology for big business
  • Prominent last quarter of 19th century and first two decades of 20th century
  • Businessmen free to do what they wanted
  • Labor only as a commodity