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The New Order. Changes in America’s economy and society. Dictoglos.

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the new order

The New Order

Changes in America’s economy and society.

  • It is in hot weather, when life indoors is well-nigh unbearable with cooking, sleeping, and working, all crowded into the small rooms together, that the tenement expands, reckless of all restraint. Then a strange and picturesque life moves upon the flat roofs. In the day and early evening mothers air their babies there, the boys fly their kites from the house-tops, undismayed by police regulations...
    • Jacob Riis. In The Slums. (1890)
shame of the cities
Shame of the Cities
  • Tenements and inner city slums begin as massive numbers of immigrants and farmers pushed into the cities
  • 1860- 20% of US population lived in cities
  • 1900- 40% lived in cities
urban growth
Urban Growth
  • Urbanization- The growth of cities
  • Factories open in center of cities near railroad tracks.
  • New York, Chicago, St. Louis populations explode in the crush of new citizens and workers.
  • Suburbs- communities on the outer reaches of the main city.
other reasons for the shift
Other reasons for the shift
  • Luxuries- Plays, concerts, indoor plumbing, electricity, and fine restaurants all were located in cities.
  • Easy to get lost in (especially when hiding from friends and family).
  • Hardships on the frontier and on the farms.
  • Between 1880-1920: more than 25 million people immigrated to the US.
  • Most were from Italy, Greece, Poland, and Russia.
    • Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, or Jewish faiths.
  • Ellis Island- opened in 1892 and more than 20 million immigrants would pass through its doors until 1954.
  • Most if not all immigrants settled in cities where large numbers of other immigrants lived.
social problems
Social Problems
  • Drug use, illegal activities, and violence all rise heavily with the increases in populations.
  • Cities were completely unprepared for influx of citizens. Too few firefighters, police, waste management systems, and too little housing were all major issues.
  • Most apartments were divided among several families.
  • African Americans and African immigrants were segregated to a small section of the city and faced horrible conditions.
political corruption
Political Corruption
  • Politicians held the contracts to all public works projects and made those that wanted them to pay.
  • Companies added bribes into the contracts and paid the politicians for their assistance in getting the contract.
  • Many politicians had what was called a political machine, which went out into the city and bought votes for them through charity, intimidation, and work.
    • These parts of the machine were also politicians and in return for their work were handsomely rewarded with their own kickbacks
industrial disorder
Industrial Disorder
  • 1910- the wealthiest 2% accounted for almost 20% of the total income of the US.
  • Mergers and buyouts led to trusts (a combination of companies dominating an industry) which reduced the amount of competition in the cities.
  • However, as the wealthy became richer through these practices, materials and products became cheaper for the poor.
industrial disorder1
Industrial disorder
  • Falling prices were due to the modernization of the practices of companies. Machines and other technology were making the production of goods cheaper than ever.
  • Poor wages and high costs of all goods made it very hard for many workers to live well.
  • Divide between the rich upper class and the poor working class was filled by the middle class.
    • Clerks, managers, college professors, small-business owners, clergy members, lawyers, and other professionals fell into this class.
  • Middle class felt threatened by both the upper and low class and felt that the values of America were being stripped away, began a movement to return to the economic opportunity, religious morality, political honesty, and social stability called the Progressive movement.