Chapter 3 – The Beef Industry - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 3 – The Beef Industry

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  1. Chapter 3 – The Beef Industry

  2. Objectives of the Chapter: • How beef has influenced the American diet • Location of the beef industry • Beef cattle breeds • 4 major segments of the beef industry • Meat Science

  3. Important Terminology: • Veal • Sire Breeds • Dam Breeds • Exotics • Purebred Operations • Cow-calf Operations • Stocker Operations • Feedlot Operations • Stocker

  4. How has beef influenced the American Diet? • Americans are beef eaters! • The average person consumes 67.5 pounds of beef and veal each year! • Buy more beef than poultry, seafood, and pork combined! • Beef accounts for 6% of grocery sales • Currently an increase in beef sales at commercial restaurants

  5. The US exports over a million metric tons of beef each year – 2,204,600,000pounds of beef! • This amount represents approximately $2.5 billion!

  6. So, what’s in it for us? • Beef is one of the most nutritionally complete foods a human can consume • Very dense in nutrients • Actually more nutritious than the feed the animal ate to produce the meat! • Meat contains approximately 88% of our daily B12 requirement – a vitamin difficult to obtain through plants

  7. History of Beef in America • Cattle was brought over by Europeans to feed the American settlers • Until the Civil War, cattle was prominently raised on family farms for consumption • This ended with urbanization – more difficult to raise their own meat/easier to purchase

  8. Current State of the Beef Industry • Over a 100 million head of cattle in the US on over a million farms/ranches • Largest segment of all agriculture in US • 80% of farms have been owned by the same family for 25+ years • US produces ~25% worlds beef w/less than 10% of the cattle

  9. Location of the Beef Industry • Western US land used to graze cattle • Southern US used to produce grass/hay, or milder climate crops to feed the cattle

  10. Why the Beef Industry is Good (even though there are constant critics!) • The facts: • Beef cattle are fed 6-9 pounds of feed for 1 pound of gain • Is this wasteful? • Land used to graze beef cattle has little, if not any other use

  11. But what about all that feed? • Livestock are finished (or fattened) on grain that is not considered good for human consumption • Cattle also make use of by-products that can not be fed to humans (beet pulp, citrus pulp, soybean/cottonseed by-product)

  12. Beef Cattle Breeds • Average size production herd is around 100 head • Over 40 different breeds grown in US, as well as multiple cross combinations

  13. Producers choose their breed on: • Type of market where the animal will be sold • Type of environmental conditions in which the animal will be produced • Personal likes and dislikes of the individual producer

  14. What type of differences are there in breeds? • Large/small carcass • Maturity size • Adaptation to various types of weather • Temperament • Sire breed vs. Dam Breed • Sire: use the sire in crossbreeding • Dam: use the dam in crossbreeding • Helps producers get the best of both worlds

  15. Three broad classification of beef breeds grown in the US: • British Breeds • Continental European Breeds • Zebu Breeds

  16. British Breeds include: • Angus • Hereford • Shorthorn

  17. Why choose British breeds? • Generally docile • High-quality production carcass at a medium size

  18. Continental European Breeds include: • Limousin • Simmental • Charolais • Chianina

  19. Why choose CEB? (also known as exotics) • They brought size and ability to grow • Very large mature size • A Chianina bull may reach 4,000 pounds at maturity • Tend to cross with British breeds

  20. Zebu Breeds • Classified as Bos indicus, a separate species from the other breeds, Bos taurus • Characterized by the large fleshy hump behind the shoulder and loose folds of skin • Very tolerate to heat and humidity, and resistant to pests

  21. Common Zebu breeds: • Brahman • Santa Gertrudis • Brangus • Beefmaster

  22. Four segments of the Beef Industry: • Purebred operations • Cow-calf operations • Stocker operations • Feedlot operations

  23. Purebred Operations • Purpose to produce seed stock cattle – or the cattle that is to be used as sires and dams of calves that will be grown out for market • Different breeds have different advantages – purebred stock breeders look to improve and accentuate

  24. Purebred operations often compete in numerous shows across the nation • Shows serve to educate and to make improvements in cattle industry

  25. Cow-calf Operations • This is where the calves that will eventually be grown out and sent to market are produced • Most of these calves are crossbred animals from purebred parents

  26. Calves are usually sold upon weaning • Calves are weaned around 300 to 500 pounds • Buyers prefer calves castrated and vaccinated, in good condition to handle a change in environment

  27. Stocker Operation • Step between the weaning and finishing (or fattening) prior to slaughter • In order for the animal to start developing fat in the right places, the animal should be mature enough and stopped growing

  28. Cattle is placed on pasture land and fed a ration designed for skeletal and muscular growth • Fed a high roughage and properly balanced diet that ensure the animal will make gains to be placed in a feedlot

  29. Feedlot Operation • Final phase before animal is sent to slaughter • Animals are fed a high concentrate ration to gain fat • Many feedlots are found in the Midwest because of high grain operations

  30. Feedlots vary in size from feeding a 100 head/year to over a 1000/year • When animals reach the proper degree of finish, they are quickly moved to the slaughterhouse • When slaughtered, the cattle are usually between 18-24 months and 800-1,500 pounds