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English 9 Midterm Review. Christiana High School January 2012. Directions for the Review. Take notes on the terms and the definitions as we go through these slides. In some cases, you will be asked to find a pattern and develop a definition from that.

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english 9 midterm review

English 9 Midterm Review

Christiana High SchoolJanuary 2012

directions for the review
Directions for the Review
  • Take notes on the terms and the definitions as we go through these slides.
  • In some cases, you will be asked to find a pattern and develop a definition from that.
  • In all cases, you will be asked to determine the literary term for this pattern/definition.
  • Be sure to jot down at least one (preferably more) examples of the literary term.
what s the definition the term

What’s the definition? The term?

EXAMPLES FOR #1 (what does each example show):

He was a greedy man who hungered for other people’s money.

Efficient—that’s the word that sums up Sophia. She could do her school work, make lunches for the family for the next day, make the dinner, clean the kitchen, and read a story to her younger brother at bedtime.

“I can beat him any day,” Brutus thought looking at young Edward. “He’s skinny, wears thick glasses, and always has his nose in a book.”

“What do you mean, second place,” she questioned the judge. “I won!”

1 characterization
1. CHARACTERIZATION

DEFINITION:The way a writer creates and develops a character’s personality or nature through a narrator by using one or several of the following:

  • Direct comments about a character’s personality
  • Description of the character’s appearance
  • The character’s thoughts, speech & actions
  • The thoughts, speech, and actions of other characters.

EXAMPLE:The author characterizes Susie through the following words and actions as a self-confident (maybe arrogant), and assertive person. “What do you mean, second place?” Susie questioned the judge. “I won!”

what s the literary term
What’s the literary term?

DEFINITION FOR #2:The time and place of the action of a story. Sometimes the place may become a major part of the story or its overall effect.

Example: The damp and dark catacombs in the story “Cask of Amontillado” is very important to the overall effect of Poe’s story.

2 setting
2. SETTING

DEFINITION: The time and place of the action of a story. Sometimes the place may become a major part of the story or its overall effect.

Example: Damp and dark catacombs (where both bottles and barrels of wine are stored and where dead relatives are buried) in Edgar Allan Poe’s story “Cask of Amontillado” makes the overall effect of the story more scary for readers and foreshadows the ending.

what s the literary term1
What’s the literary term?

DEFINITION FOR #3A struggle between opposing forces. Almost every story has a main struggle that is the focus of the story. The struggle can be external- human versus human - human versus technology- human versus nature - human versus supernatural- human versus society

OR internal- human versus self

3 conflict
3. CONFLICT

DEFINITION FOR #3A struggle between opposing forces. Almost every story has a main struggle that is the focus of the story. The struggle can be external- human versus human - human versus technology- human versus nature - human versus supernatural- human versus society

OR internal- human versus self

Examples: In the Rosa Parks’ selection, human versus society.In “Seabiscuit: An American Legend,” human against nature.

literary term
Literary Term?

DEFINITION FOR #4 An account of a conversation, an episode, or an event that happened before the beginning of a story. Often helps give the reader helpful information to understand characters.

Example:In telling a story of the day he took home a dog from an animal shelter, the author interrupts the events of that day to talk about a dog he had owned as a child. We learn he is an animal lover.

4 flashback
4. FLASHBACK

DEFINITION:An account of a conversation, an episode, or an event that happened before the beginning of a story. Often helps give the reader helpful information to understand characters.

Example: In telling Dicken’s “A Christmas Carol” Bob Cratchit (the grouchy, stingy old man) goes back into his past to see other mean things he had done.

what s the literary term2
What’s the literary term?
  • DEFINITION #5The attitude a writer takes toward a subject.
  • EXAMPLES- I was so angry I could have spit nickels.- We collected coins on the beach for two hours.- He poured the coins over and over in his hands. They were now his, His, HIS!!!
5 tone
5. TONE
  • DEFINITION The attitude a writer takes toward a subject. HINT: Think of it as “tone of voice,” which is what it is, except on paper instead of aloud.
  • EXAMPLES- I was so angry I could have spit nickels. (angry)- We collected coins on the beach for two hours. (matter of fact; factual)- He poured the coins over and over in his hands. They were now his, His, HIS!!! (excited, greedy)
what s the definition the term1
What’s the definition? The term?

DEFINITION #6:In literature, the feeling or atmosphere an author creates in the reader. (“The ______ is in ME!”)

EXAMPLES:

Reading “The Raven” makes many readers feel curious and nervous.Reading Seabiscuit: An American Legend makes many readers feel happy and gives them a sense that they too can overcome difficult obstacles.

6 mood
6. MOOD

DEFINITION:In literature, the feeling or atmosphere an author creates in the reader. (“The MOOD is in ME!”)

EXAMPLE:Reading Seabiscuit: An American Legend makes many readers feel happy and gives them a sense that they too can overcome difficult obstacles.

what s the definition the term2
What’s the definition? The term?

DEFINITION FOR #7A person, place, object or activity that stands for something beyond itself.

Example: A flag is a colored piece of cloth that stands for a country.

In the selection about Rosa Parks, her staying seated on the bus represented Parks’ desire to have the same rights as white people in Alabama.

7 symbol
7. SYMBOL

DEFINITIONA person, place, object or activity that stands for something beyond itself.

Example: A flag is a colored piece of cloth that stands for a country.

In the selection about Rosa Parks, her staying seated on the bus represented Parks’ desire to have the same rights as white people in Alabama.

literary term1
Literary Term?

DEFINITION FOR #8:Techniques writers use to enhance their arguments and communicate more effectively in making or proving a point. Techniques include repetition, analogy, rhetorical questions, and parallelism.

Example using repetition: A politician may repeat a claim that an opponent is weak over and over to convince voters of that.

8 rhetorical devices
8. RHETORICAL DEVICES

DEFINITION:Techniques writers use to enhance their arguments and communicate more effectively in making or proving a point. Techniques include repetition, analogy, rhetorical questions, and parallelism.

Example using a rhetorical question (speaker answers his/her own question): “Why should you settle for inferior sneakers? You shouldn’t! You deserve the best!”

what s the literary term3
What’s the Literary Term?

DEFINITION FOR #9: A point-by-point comparison of two things that are alike in some way. Authors often use this technique in nonfiction to explain unfamiliar subjects or ideas with familiar ones.

Example: “Math has taught me the lesson of thrift. Get the most value for your money. The thrifty habit stayed with me when I became a writer. When I put people or events in a book, I squeeze the most out of them. As a result my plots seem to be carefully worked out in advance.” L. Namioka

9 analogy
9. ANALOGY

DEFINITIONA point-by-point comparison of two things that are alike in some way. Authors often use this technique in nonfiction to explain unfamiliar subjects or ideas with familiar ones.

Example: “Math has taught me the lesson of thrift. Get the most value for your money. The thrifty habit stayed with me when I became a writer. When I put people or events in a book, I squeeze the most out of them. As a result my plots seem to be carefully worked out in advance.” L. Namioka

what are the literary terms
What are the Literary Terms?

DEFINITION FOR #10Your point of view versus factual information.

Examples: Your Point of View: That chair is comfortable.FACT: The chair is a recliner made by Lazy Boy.Your Point of View: Andy Warhol is the best painter. FACT: Andy Warhol’s most recent painting sold for $5 million.

10 opinion versus fact
10. OPINION VERSUS FACT

DEFINITION:Your point of view versus factual information.

Examples: OPINION: That chair is comfortable.FACT: That recliner is made by Lazy Boy.OPINION: Andy Warhol is the best painter. FACT: Andy Warhol’s most recent painting sold for $5 million.

what is the literary term
What is the Literary term?

DEFINITION FOR #11: The point you are attempting to prove in an argument (not a yelling argument, but an argument in an intellectual debate).

EXAMPLES:

  • Paul McCartney wrote the best lyrics of the 60s.
  • My little sister is the most considerate member of my family.
  • Global warming will bring many harmful changes to most coastal areas.
11 claim
11. CLAIM

DEFINITION: The point you are attempting to prove in an argument (not a yelling argument, but an argument in an intellectual debate).

Examples:

  • Paul McCartney wrote the best lyrics of the 60s.
  • My little sister is the most considerate member of my family.
  • Global warming will bring many harmful changes to most coastal areas.
what s the term
What’s the term?

DEFINTION FOR #12

Specific facts, quotes from experts, statistics, and other information that helps to prove your opinion.

EXAMPLES

  • One key addition JFK made to the federal government was to establish the Environmental Protection Agency.
  • JFK read at least five newspapers each morning.
  • JFK had begun trying to get a law passed that was called The Civil Rights Act of 1964. Unfortunately, he was assassinated before it was passed.
  • President Lyndon Johnson called on the memory of JFK to get the law passed. It called for the creation of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
12 details
12. DETAILS

DEFINTION

Specific facts, quotes from experts, statistics, and other information that helps to prove your opinion.

EXAMPLES

  • One key addition JFK made to the federal government was to establish the Environmental Protection Agency.
  • JFK read at least five newspapers each morning.
  • JFK had begun trying to get a law passed that was called The Civil Rights Act of 1964. Unfortunately, he was assassinated before it was passed.
  • President Lyndon Johnson called on the memory of JFK to get the law passed. It called for the creation of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
what s the literary term4
What’s the Literary Term?

DEFINITION FOR #13

A figure of speech in which a word or phrase that describes one thing is used to describe another, making a direct comparison.

Examples: “…a sea of troubles" "All the world's a stage”She runs so fast, she is the wind.

13 metaphor
13. METAPHOR

DEFINITION: A figure of speech in which a word or phrase that describes one thing is used to describe another, making a direct comparison.

Examples: “…a sea of troubles" "All the world's a stage”She runs so fast, she is the wind.

what s the definition the term3
What’s the definition? The term?

EXAMPLES FOR #14 from “The Raven”:

  • “And the silken, sad, uncertain …”
  • “While I nodded, nearly napping …”
  • “Doubting, dreaming dreams no mortal ever dared to dream before:”
  • “What this grim, ungainly, gaunt and ominous bird of yore …”
14 alliteration
14. ALLITERATION

DEFINITION: Repetition of the same sounds (consonant sounds) at the beginning of words.

EXAMPLE: “Doubting, dreaming dreams no mortal ever dared to dream before:” Edgar Allan Poe

what the definition the term
What the definition? The term?

EXAMPLES FOR #15

  • I’m so hungry, I could eat a horse.
  • I was so embarrassed, I thought I would die.
  • It took a million years of standing in line to get lunch today.
  • She was so happy to get the acceptance notice from Cornell, she was floating on cloud nine.
15 hyperbole
15. HYPERBOLE

DEFINITION: figure of speech in which exaggeration is used for emphasis.

Example: I could sleep for a million years

what the definition the term1
What the definition? The term?

EXAMPLES:

  • “Don’t get off the path!” from “Sound of Thunder”
  • The isolated location of the mansion and the heads of the animals mounted on the walls in “The Most Dangerous Game”
  • From “The Raven,” “Once upon a midnight dreary …”
foreshadowing
Foreshadowing

DEFINITION: The author’s use of hints to suggest what might happen later in the story or work.

EXAMPLES:

“Don’t get off the path!” from “Sound of Thunder” and later the main character runs off the path … with disastrous consequences