REASONS FOR WAR 1.Europe divided into 2 loose alliances: a. Triple Alliance – Italy, Austria-Hungary & Germany b. Triple Entente- France, Great Britain & Russia
REASONS FOR WAR 2. Imperialism led to competition for colonies
REASONS FOR WAR 3.MILITARISM or aggressive preparation for war grows. • Mili leaders develop war plans & stock supplies. • Refuse to change plans for anything & were basis for all decisions.
REASONS FOR WAR . Militarism also includes:CONSCRIPTION- or military draft. Armies doubled in size by 1914.
4.NATIONALISM:desire for own nation grows. • many ethnic groups want freedom from the states in which they live.
5. Balkans Crisis *Aus-Hun annexes Bosnia & Herzegovinia, hurting Serbia’s chance to create Slavic empire (Most Bosnians are slavic) *Serbs prep for war & are backed by Rus *Rus backs down when Germ threatens to help Aus-Hun
1914: Serbia wants to create Slavic state. • Aus-Hun against it
June 28, 1914: Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to A-H throne & wife Sophia visited Sarajevo, Bosnia.
BLACK HAND (Serbian terrorist group who want Bosnia free),try to kill Franz. • Tried a bomb & failed. • GAVRILLO PRINCEP shoots both
DON’T WRITE!!!! • Aus-Hun doesn’t know if Serb govt involved • Want to attack. • Afraid of Russia • Turn to Germ for help.
Germ Emperor Kaiser Wilhelm II gives “BLANK CHECK”, promising full support of Aus-Hun, even if Rus gets involved
WAR BEGINS!!! • Serbs turn down AUS-Hun demands • A-H declares war on Serbs July 28th, 1914
WAR BEGINS!!! • Czar Nicholas II of Rus orders partial MOBILIZATION (assembling troops & supplies & making them ready for war).
WAR BEGINS • Russia’s war plans say to fight Germ & Aus-Hun & Czar Nicholas must mobilize against both. Czar orders full mobilization on July 29th, 1914.
WAR BEGINS!!! • Ger sees mobilization as act of war & declares war on Russia.
WAR BEGINS • Germ General Alfred Von Schlieffen’s, war plan calls for 2 front war against FR & RUS (written 1894)
Due to SCHLEIFFEN PLAN Ger had to attack France through Belgium to get RUS. • Ger declared war on France on Aug. 3rd, 1914
DON’T WRITE • Germ told Belgium (neutral) to let troops pass through
Aug. 4th, 1914, Great Brit declares war on Germ for violating Belgium’s neutrality. • GB part of alliance w/ Fr & Rus (Triple Entente)
1. Franz Ferdinand (next leader of Aus-Hun) assassinated by Serb terrorists the Black Hand 6/28/14 2. Aus-Hun gets Blank Check from Germany 7/5/14 3. Aus-Hun declares war on Serb 7/28/14 4. Russia Mobilizes army on 7/ 29 – 31/14 against both Aus-Hun & Germ
5. Germans see mobilization as act of war. Declares war on Russia 6. German Schlieffen plan makes Germ invade Belgium & France to get Russia 7. Germany declares war on France 8/3/14 8. Great Britain declares war on Germany 8/4/14
WAR BEGINS • Govt spreads PROPAGANDA- ideas used to influence public opinion for or against a cause- • helped to create hatred & support for causes. • Most believe war will end in 2 weeks or less
Western Front-Mostly in Fr • Schlieffen Plan says go thru Belgium to circle Paris, trapping Fr. • Ger stopped at 1st Battle of Marne (Sept. 6-10, 1914). • Fr troops sent in taxis to front line in red uniforms.
WESTERN FRONT • Both sides dig trenches & create a stalemate for next 4 yrs • New technology • Little movement. • (Gas, tank, plane, mortars, machine gun, zeppelin,)
BATTLE OF VERDUN
Eastern Front- Very mobile, w/ huge losses of life. 1. Rus moves into E. Germ & is defeated at Battles of Masurian Lakes & Tannenburg by Sept 1914
2.Aus-Hun defeated by Rus 3. Italy switches sides in 1915 & attacks Aus-Hun. 4. Italy joins Triple Entente, but now called the ALLIES (GB, FR, RUS)
5. Germ pushes Russians back into own land w/ heavy losses 6. Rus no longer threat. 7. Bulgaria joins w/ Germ & Aus-Hun. (now Central Powers) 8. Attack & destroy Serbs in Sept 1915.
Ottoman empire (TURKEY) joins Germ NEW ALLIES
DON’T WRITE!!!! • Lawrence of Arabia (Brit officer in Middle East) gets Arab princes to rise against Ottoman (promise independence) • Destroy Otto by 1918
US neutral • GB blockades Germ w/ navy • Germ uses unrestricted submarine warfare (will shoot down any ship)
May 7, 1915 Germ sinks LUSITANIA, a BR passenger liner, killing 1000 (128 Americans) • Germ stops subs, afraid USA will join war.
Jan. 1917, ADMIRALHOLTZENDORF talks KAISER into using unrestricted sub warfare & blockades again to break stalemate
HOLTZENDORF promises Kaiser Wilhelm II that Brits will starve before US acts • “I give your majesty my word as an officer, not one American will land on the continent”
April 1917, US enters the war!!!! • (bringing men, supplies & psychological boost).
Became TOTALWAR-complete mobilization of resources & people. • Women take over jobs in factories
Euros went to PLANNED ECONOMIES- systems run by govt agencies thatexpanded powers to meet needs such as: drafts, regulate import/exports, ration food, control prices, wages & rent control